AMERICANREVOLUTION.ORG

THE ORGANIZATION OF THE BRITISH ARMY IN THEAMERICAN REVOLUTION

Illustrative Appendices to CHAPTER IV
THE PROVISIONING OF THE ARMY

ACCOUNT OF PROVISIONS RECEIVED BY DANIEL CHAMIER, COMMISSARY GENERAL IN NORTH AMERICA, BETWEEN 6 FEB. 1775 AND 9 JAN. 1778 1

Kind of Provision

Amount

Value

Bread

 2,032,538 lbs.

 £17,240 5s 6 1/2d

Beer

106 tuns 24 gallons

 £267 6s 7d

Spirits

61,282 gals.

 £6,894 8s 3 1/4d

Wine

14,851 gals.

 £1,206 13s 6d

Beef

159,287 lbs.

 £9,789 10s 3 1/4

Pork

231,910 lbs.

 £9,421 7s 3 1/4d

Flour

271,443 lbs.

 £1,888 8s 1d

Suet

3,238 lbs.

 £53 19s 6d

Raisins

23,010 lbs.

 £349 5s 2d

Pease

9,572 bush.

 £1,905 14s 4 1/2d

Oatmeal

122,059 gals.

 £4,130 5s 1d

Rice

75,077

 £727 11s 10d

Oil

12,641 gals.

 £2,554 11s 2d

Butter

17,933 lbs.

 £485 14s

Cheese

7,909 lbs.

 £111 4s 5d

Vinegar

10,739 gals.

 £288 12s 9d

Butt Staves
Puncheon Staves
Hogshead Staves
Half-Hhd. Staves
Barrel Staves
Headings

40
137
100
580
90
40

 £15 9s 4 1/2d

Casks
Hoops

 3,221 tuns
27,534

 £5,504 12s 1 1/4d

Bags

12,491

 £676 11s 11d

Jars

397

 £198 10s

Coals

687 chal.

 £1,134 15s 9d

Sugar

9,004 lbs.

 £176 17s 3 1/4d

Barley

22,332 lbs.

 £139 11s 6d

Salt

32 Bush.

 £6 2s 1 1/2d

 Fish

8,352 lbs.

 £33 8s 1 3/4d

Total
 

 £65,200 16s

Account of Provisions etc., Decayed

 Kind of Provision

 Amount

 Value

Beef

1,128 lbs.

£17 15s 10 1/2d

Pork

140 lbs.

£1 18s 5 1/4d

Raisins

769 lbs.

£5 8s 2d

Oil

104 gals.

£15 12s

Butter

176 lbs.

£1 18s 3 1/4d

Bags

157

Jars

1

10s

 

ACCOUNT OF PROVISIONS RECEIVED BY COMMISSARY GENERAL DANIEL WEIR AT NEW YORK BETWEEN 7 OCT. 1774 AND 5 SEPT. 1781 2

 Kind of Provision

 Amount

Value

Bread

512,182 lbs.

£4,020 9s 6d

Spirits

42,655 gals.

£5,687 7s

Beef

42,832 lbs.

£2,699 6s 2d

Pork

83,269 lbs.

£3,469 11s 1 3/4d

Flour

164,884 lbs.

£1,099 10s 8d

Raisins

2,574 lbs.

£45 19s 3d

Pease

1,148 bush.

£242 9s 2d

Oatmeal

12,007 gals.

£422 14s 1d

Rice

91,557 lbs.

£897 5s 1 1/2d

 Oil

2,385 gals.

£531 15s 4 1/4d

Butter

14,516 lbs.

£463 14s 6 1/2d

Cheese

251 lbs.

£3 10s 7 1/2d

Vinegar

4,618 gals.

£125 2d

Casks
Hoops

1,052 tuns
12,233

£1,778 2s 1d

Bags

3,994

£216 6s 10d

Jars

84

£42

Candles

120 doz.

£40 5s

Sauerkraut

123 barr.

£215 5s 9d

 Total
 

£22,000 12s 5 1/2d

 

ABSTRACT OF PROVISIONS SHIPPED FOR NEW YORK AND PHILADELPHIA IN 1776,1777,1778, INCLUDING THE REMAINDER OF THE PROVISIONS CONTRACTED FOR IN 1778 BUT NOT YET SAILED FROM CORK.
(LONDON, 15 JANUARY, 1779)
3
 

Beef
lbs.

Pork
lbs.

Bread & Flour
lbs.
B4,821,978

Pease
bush.

Oatmeal & Rice
lbs.

Butter
lbs.

105 Ships dispatched in 1776

1,825,731

7,067,572

9,847,744

76,732

1,722,583

782,249

 11 Ships sailed from Cork 6 May 1777

304,290

1,210,088

1,336,440

7,175 1/2

299,195

128,909

 8 Ships sailed from Cork 19 May 1777

229,950

1,084,096

1,755,376

5,650

535,561

89,340

 10 Ships sailed from Cork 20 June 1777

305,970

898,256

1,506,400

2,816

631,561

131,402

 6 Ships sailed from Cork 14 July 1777

132,300

578,592

1,683,024

1,544

369,824

34,797

 8 Ships sailed from Cork 30 Oct 1777

 136,240

727,168

1,249,360

11,154 1/4

217,864

65,000

 7 Ships sailed from Cork 16 Aug 1777

86,310

554,960

1,362,984

15,071 1/2
 

36,882

 8 Ships sailed from Cork 12 Sept 1777

200,130

678,520

1,395,240

18,115

48,750

104,724

 3 Ships sailed from Cork 18 Dec 1777

152,565

388,336

289,240

256

196,672

12,473

 2 Ships sailed from Cork 18 Dec 1777

281,424

721,760
       

 8 Ships sailed from Cork 25 Feb 1778

194,055

813,986

1,962,612

11,130 1/2

34,020

122,403

 7 Ships sailed from Cork 10 Apr 1778

129,675

193,648

1,634,968

3,579

44,226

40,108

 6 Ships sailed from Cork 31 May 1778

136,448

545,992

1,217,600

7,060
 

54,405

 6 Ships sailed from Cork 28 Jun 1778

277,830

937,490

1,076,320

9,916 1/4
 

109,172

 13 Ships sailed from Cork 31 July 1778

518,280

916,680

2,900,560

22,691 1/2

188,912

147,240

 5 Ships sailed from Cork 12 Oct 1778

153,300

607,360

1,517,320

5,708 1/4

107,296

42,725

 8 Ships sailed from Cork 11 Nov 1778

284,970

997,148

2,167,760

760 1/4
 

118,948

 8 Ships sailed from Cork15 Dec 1778

341,670

592,274

1,580,320

7,097 1/4

176,064

114,856

 Ships at Corke as per Estimate, but the exact Return not recorded
 

985,432

1,958,012

24,962 1/4

287,826

18,329

Total

5,691,138

20,499,358

40,372,338

231,419 3/4

4,860,354

2,154,052

Which would supply 40,000 Men for

1,039 Days

1,039 Days

1,009 Days

1,282 Days

1,282 Days

1,005 Days
N.B. The Quantity lost or taken on the Voyage to America does not amount to above 12 or 14 days Consumption.
None of the Supplies to Canada, Nova Scotia, or the Floridas are included hereof.
A fleet of 10 victuallers is now lying at Cork if they have not already sailed.
Orders are given for dispatching 4 Months compleat provisions for 32, 000 Men from Cork to New York in Feb. 1779.

 

EXAMPLE OF A PROVISION CONTRACT 4

Articles of Agreement Indented and made and concluded this 2d April 1776 in the Sixteenth Year of the Reign of Our Sovereign Lord George the third by the Grace of God King of Great Britain France and Ireland Defender of the Faith and so forth, By and Between the Right Honorable the Lords Commissioners of his Majesty's Treasury on the Part and behalf of his Majesty of the one part and Arnold Nesbit, Adam Drummond and Moses Franks Esqrs. on the other part.

Whereas it is thought Necessary that a Contract should be entered into with some fit and responsible persons for furnishing a Quantity of Provisions for the supply of the Troops on Service in America such Provisions to be delivered into Store Houses at Corke at such Times as the said Lord Commissioners shall Appoint.

And Whereas Proposals have been made to the said Lords Commissioners by the said Arnold Nesbit Adam Drummond and Moses Franks for performing the said Service Which proposals the said Lords Commissioners have on the part and behalf of his Majesty thought fit to Accept upon the terms Limitations and restrictions herein After mentioned.

Now this Indenture Witnesseth that the said Arnold Nesbit Adam Drummond and Moses Franks Do for themselves, their Heirs Executors and Administrators promise Covenant, Contract and Agree with the said Lords Commissioners of his Majesty's Treasury that they the said Arnold Nesbit Adam Drummond and Moses Franks shall and will deliver or cause to be delivered at their own Costs Charges and Risques into Storehouses to be provided at His Majesty's Expence such Respective Quantities as the said Lords Commissioners shall direct and Require of good wholesome and sound Provisions of a Quality and condition fit for the purpose of exporting to America for the use of his Majesty's Troops there serving under Genl Howe of the kinds herein After mentioned as will be sufficient to Victual 12000 Men from the 1st Day of January 1776 to the 1st day of May 1777 in the following Proportions that is to say for each Person to be Victualled for several days and so for every seven days, Successively, Seven pounds of Bread or in lieu thereof Four pounds of Pork Six Ounces of Butter three Pints of Pease One pound of Flour or in lieu thereof Half a Pound of Rice or half a Pound of Oatmeal and the said Arnold Nesbit Adam Drummond and Moses Franks further Covenant and Agree that they will during the Continuance of ye Present Contract furnish upon due Notice given to them such Quantities of the said several Articles of Provisions as shall from time to time be Required and Demanded of them by the said Lords Commissioners and deliver the same into his Majesty's Storehouses at Corke at their own Expence And in Case any of the said Provisions shall be found bad in their kind or unfit for the purpose before mentioned by the Person or Persons to be Appointed for inspecting or examining the same such provisions shall not be suffered to be put into the Storehouses but the like Quantity of ye like Articles of Provisions good wholesome and Sound shall be furnished in lieu thereof at the Expence of the said Contractors And the said Arnold Nesbit Adam Drummond and Moses Franks do likewise agree that all the Provisions to be delivered into his Majesty's Storehouses at Corke shall be packed in the best Manner and most suitable for the intended Service, And the Lords Commissioners on the behalf of His Majesty Do covenant promise and Agree that the said Arnold Nesbit Adam Drummond and Moses Franks their Heirs Executors and Administrators shall be Allowed and Receive for the Provisions so delivered into his Majesty's StoreHouses at Corke at and after the Rate of 5 1/4d p. Ration upon Producing Certificate signed by the Commanding Officer and Commissary of Stores at Corke or some Person or persons as shall be Appointed for that purpose which Certificates are to specify the Quantities of Provisions which shall have been delivered and that the same were in good Order and Condition And the said Lords Commissioners do likewise Covenant and Agree that they will bear harmless and indemnify the said Arnold Nesbit Adam Drummond, Moses Franks from all Losses and Damages that may happen to the said Provisions after being delivered into the Store Houses at Corke and also in regard to the payment of any Custom House Duties for or upon any of the said Provisions to be delivered pursuant to this Contract and it is hereby declared and Agreed by and between the said Parties to these Presents that the same and the several Articles and things Contained therein shall Continue and be in force for and during the space of Sixteen Calendar Months that is to say for and from the first day of January 1776 to the first day of May 1777 exclusive.

Lastly it is Covenanted and Agreed between the Parties to these Presents that the said Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury or any of them shall not be liable in any of their Persons or Estates to any Action of Covenant or other Action whatsoever by Reason or Means of their being on his Majesty's behalf made parties to this Contract In Witness whereof the said Lords Commissioners of his Majesty's Treasury and the said Arnold Nesbit Adam Drummond and Moses Franks have hereunto interchangeably put their Hands and seals the Day and Year first Above Written

North C Townshend Beauchamp Cornwall

***

HOWE'S REMARKS ON HORSE PROVISIONS NECESSARY FOR THE CAMPAIGN OF 1776 5

Forage

It will be Necessary to begin the Campaign with Six Months Forage in the Magazines which cannot be procured in this Country in its present Situation therefore it must be looked for from Europe.

Hay

Rhode Island from the best information can supply fifteen Thousand Tons of Hay in Season, but still great difficulties will arise in procuring it if the Inhabitants of that Island are inimical, as you must depend upon them to cut and cure the Hay. The same Observation will answer with respect to Long Island, and Statten Island, in the Province of New York. Therefore upon this uncertainty the dependence upon Magazines must be upon Europe.

Forage

The army being in the field may furnish itself with green forage from the Middle of June to the Middle of September.

Oats and Bran

Canada is able to Supply the Articles of Oats and Bran, but the length and uncertainty of the Voyage is such, that it is thought these articles may be brought from England or Ireland, full as Cheap, and with this advantage that Oats in particular are far superior in Quality. . . .
Head Quarters Boston Nov. 27th 1775.

***

THE DUTIES OF A COMMISSARY GENERAL 6

Instructions to be observed by our Trusty and Welbeloved Nathl Day Esqr. in the execution of his Commission, under our Sign Manual bearing date 20th day of March 1776 whereby he is appointed Commissary of Our Army in Canada.

You shall forthwith repair to the District described in your Commission as afores'd & take upon you the inspection, supervision, & direction of all Commissaries, & Deputy Commissaries, & Ass't Commissaries, of every description, & all their subordinate Officers, Ministers, & Agents whatsoever now or hereafter belonging to, or attending upon our Army that now is or shall be in Canada, subject nevertheless in all things to such Orders as you shall from time to time receive from us, or from our high Treasurer, or the Commissioners of our Treasury, for the Time being or from the Commander in Chief of our said Army.

You are from time to time to appoint any one, or more of Deputy Commissaries, or Assistants whom you shall think fit to preside over, take care of, superintend, aid, & assist in the securing and management of Magazines and Depots of Provisions and Forage for the use of the said Army, and also the conduct and Establishment of the Bakery, as the exigency of the Service may require.

You are to take charge of all Provisions which shall arrive in Canada for the use of our Army there and superintend the distribution thereof to the Troops. And you are to follow all such Rules and Orders touching the Providing and distribution of Fresh Provisions as you shall receive from the Commander in Chief of our said Army for the time being.

You are to make up monthly Accounts of all Provisions and Supplies which shall be received for the use of Our Army, and of the expenditures thereof, and what shall remain in Store, with an Account of the Number of the Rations drawn and of the Officers, Private Men and all others victualled, distinguishing their Rank and situation, and you are from time to time and by every opportunity to make exact and true returns thereof to Our High Treasurer or Commissioners of the Treasury for the time being and you are also from time to time to impart to Our High Treasurer or Commissioners of the Treasury for the time being all material transactions arising within the Charge of the Commissariat, attending our said Army, Given etc.

***

COMMISSION OF COMMISSARY GENERAL DANIEL WIER 7

George R
George the Third by the Grace of God King of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc. To our Trusty and Welbeloved Daniel Wier Esqr. Greeting: We do by these Presents constitute and appoint you to be Commissary General of Stores, Provisions and Forage to Our Forces serving within Our Colonies in North America, lying upon the Atlantick Ocean from Nova Scotia on the North to West Florida on the South, both inclusive, now under the Command of Our Trusty and Welbeloved Sir William Howe, Knight of the Bath, Major General of Our Forces, and General of Our Forces in North America only; You are therefore carefully and diligently to discharge the Duty of Commissary Genl. of Stores, Provisions and Forage for Our said Forces, by doing and performing all and all manner of things thereunto belonging; And We do hereby authorize and impower you to inspect the buying & delivering of Stores, Provisions and Forage for the use of Our said Forces,
whether the same be done by Contractors or others, and likewise to settle and adjust all accounts relating thereunto; And you are to observe and follow such Orders & directions from time to time as you shall receive from Us, the Commander in Chief of our said Forces, or any other superior Officer, according to the Rules & Discipline of War. Given at Our Court at St. James' the First day of February 1777, in the Seventeenth Year of Our Reign.

By H. M. 0.
Geo. Germain

Daniel Wier Esqr Commissary General of Stores, Provisions and Forage to the Forces in No. America now under the Command of General Sir William Howe.

1 W.O. 60:11.

2 W.O. 60:11.

3 T. 64:107, Robinson to Clinton, 19 Jan. 1779 (enclosure).

4 T. 64:1061 pp. 64-67.

5 C.O. 5:92, p. 721. Apparently drawn up for the perusal of Lord Dartmouth.

6 T. 64:104.

7 W.O. 25:33, p. 120.