In the following list no attempt has been made to compile an exhaustive bibliography, only those works being included which were especially serviceable in preparing this work. With a few exceptions, the list includes no material not specifically cited in the footnotes. In general, critical comment has been confined to works that were particularly helpful.


Additional Manuscripts (British Museum).

Volume 37833, fo. 1 and fo. 43, contains several important letters from George III to John Robinson, secretary of the Treasury board, respecting the provisioning of the forces in America during the war.

Admiralty Papers. Manuscripts in the Public Record Office. For the student of the British army in the American Revolution, the chief value of the Admiralty Papers lies in the data which they contain regarding the transportation and convoying of troops and supplies from England to America. The following groups of documents were found especially useful:

Adm. 1:4288. 1778-1782. Letters from the Treasury to the secretary to the Admiralty.

Adm. 2:244-259. 1776-1783. Letters from the lords of the Admiralty to the secretary of state and to other departments.

Adm. 3:81. 1775-1783. Admiralty Board Minutes. The most important transactions of the Admiralty are here recorded. The minutes afford a convenient means of tracing the board's relations with the army.

Adm. Navy Board, 279-280. 1767-1779. Promiscuous letters as to transports. A rather important group of documents relating to army transport.

Adm. Navy Board, 3525-3526. 1776-1778. Papers relating to the charge of transports.

Adm. Navy Board, 2592-2614. 1775-1783. Minutes of the Navy board. The minute books record the most significant measures adopted by the Navy commissioners. After 1779, when the latter took charge of a large part of the ocean transport service for the army, the minute books become exceedingly important to the student of military affairs.

Adm. Victualling Minutes, 72-96. 1775-1783. Minutes of the board and committees. Since the victualling commissioners were charged with the business of stocking transports with provisions, their books and papers are of considerable value in studying the ocean transport service.

Adm. Victualling Out-Letters, 27-31. 1775-1783. LetterBooks of out-letters.

Adm. Medical Minutes, 49-50. 1773-1783. General minutes of the board of commissioners for sick and wounded seamen and exchange of prisoners of war. The minutes are essential for an understanding of the functions of the Medical board and its relations to the army.

Audit Office Papers. Manuscripts in the Public Record Office (London).

Declared Accounts, Bundles, 197-208. Declared Accounts of army contractors. These papers are useful in studying army contracts. The names of the contractors, the goods they supplied, and the dates of the contracts are here recorded.

Colonial Office Papers. Manuscripts in the Public Record Office.

C.O. 5:92-103. 1775-1783. Military Correspondence. These letters are chiefly from Generals Gage, Haldimand, Howe, Clinton, and Carleton, though the collection also includes many letters from the secretary of state for the colonies to the commanders in America. The entire set of letters is of the utmost importance as regards the organization of the army. There are, in particular, many suggestive passages respecting problems of food supply and transport.

C.O. 5:119-132. 1771-1781. Entry Books of letters from the secretary of state for the colonies to the lords of the Admiralty, together with originals of letters received by the secretary from the Admiralty. Volume 125 contains important data relative to the organization of the transport service in Carleton's expedition on Lake Champlain in 1776. The other volumes contain similar material.

C.O. 5:161-166. 1772-1781. Correspondence of the secretary of state for the colonies with the Ordnance office. These volumes deal largely with the relation of the Ordnance department to the transport service both on land and on sea. In volumes 163-164 are many letters from Captain Dickinson, who had charge of the shipping hired by the department.

C.O. 5:254-262. 1775-1782. Departmental correspondence of the secretary of state for the colonies. Volumes 254-255 (1775-1782). Out-letters to Admiralty; volumes 256-257 (1775-1782), in-letters from War Office and Ordnance board; volume 258 (1776-1781), in-letters from the Treasury; volumes 259-260, in-letters from the Admiralty; volumes 261-262, out-letters to the War Office and Ordnance board. These letters are useful in a study of army transport. Volume 250 describes the wagons built for the army by the Ordnance department. Volume 254 treats of the arrangements made to transport Carleton's forces up Lake Champlain in 1776. The problem of draught horses for the troops in America is dealt with in the correspondence with the Treasury.

Treasury Papers. Manuscripts in the Public Record Office.

T. 1:512-519. 1775-1783. Original correspondence or Treasury Board papers. These bundles of papers contain documents of a varied character-letters, accounts, reports, lists, petitions, and memorials. The documents cover a wide range of miscellaneous topics relative to the army in America. Considerable data may be found regarding victualling and transport' .

T. 29:44-53. 1774-1783. Treasury Board minutes. It is safe to say that for a study of the British army in the American Revolution no minute books equal in importance those of the Treasury board. The lords commissioners had close interest in the welfare of the army, since they made the contracts for provisions and certain articles of clothing and for the transportation of certain classes of matériel. The minute books constitute an unusually complete record of the board's policy and action and, being carefully indexed, are readily used.

T. 64:101. 1772-1776. Letter and Account Book of commissariat supplies to the troops in North America. This and the succeeding volumes, T. 64:102-107, 114, 117-120, form the chief source of information respecting the provisioning of the forces in America.

T. 64:102-103. 1776-1777. Copies of letters from Nathaniel Day, commissary general to the army in America, to Secretary Robinson and others, and answers thereto.

T. 64:104. 1776-1781. Copies of letters from Secretary Robinson to Nathaniel Day.

T. 64:105. 1777-1783. Copies of letters from secretaries Robinson, Rose, Burke, and Sheridan of the Treasury board, to Haldimand.

T. 64:106-107. 1774-1777, 1778-1783. Letters to and from commanders-in-chief in America.

T. 64:114. 1778-1779. Correspondence book and accounts. of commissariat supplies, touching the army during the American War.

T. 64:117. 1776. Copies of letters from the Treasury to Anthony Merry, merchant of London, relating to the transportation of cattle, sheep and hogs, dispatched from Wales.

T. 64:118. 1776-1777. Copies of letters from Daniel Chamier, commissary general of stores and provisions to the army in America, to Secretary Robinson, and copies of the answers.

T. 64:119. 1777-1783. America: Out-letters and observations. Copies of letters from Secretary Robinson to Daniel Wier, Peter Paumier, and Brook Watson, commissaries in America, with many enclosures, tables, letters, and the like. A valuable supplement to the preceding volumes.

T. 64:120. 1779. Correspondence and account book of Peter Paumier, deputy commissary in Georgia.

T. 64:200. 1779-1780. Copies of letters from the commissioners of the Navy to the lords of the Treasury, relative to the victualling of transports. Feb. 3, 1779-Sept. 19, 1780. This volume and the succeeding one, T. 64:201, constitute the chief source of information relative to the work of the Navy board in connection with ocean transport.

T. 64:201. 1779-1781. Copies of letters from Secretary Robinson to the Navy board on the victualling service. Jan. 30, 1779-Aug. 21, 1781.

War Office Papers. Manuscripts in the Public Record Office.

W.O. 1:10-13. 1776-1783. Letters and enclosures, from officers in America to the secretary at war. This group of documents contains many letters from the commanders in America - Howe, Clinton, Carleton, and Haldimand. The letters deal chiefly with such items as ammunition, clothing, food, housing, and sickness.

W.O. 1:50-52. 1768-1783. Letters and papers from the West Indies. Useful for an understanding of military conditions in the British islands.

W.O. 1:616. 1778-1780. Letters from General Amherst, commander-in-chief in England, to Secretary Barrington. Largely concerned with drafting and recruiting.

W.O. 1:678-682, 684. 1756-1784. Letters from the secretary of state and the Treasury to the secretary at war. Many of their letters deal with ocean transport.

W.O. 1:683. 1776-1781. Letters from Lord George Germain, secretary of state for the colonies, to Secretary Barrington, concerning American affairs. This correspondence occasionally contains valuable data respecting the state of the recruiting.

W.O. 1:823-826. 1763-1784. Letters from the Treasury to the secretary at war. These letters supplement W.O. 1:678-682, 684, regarding problems of ocean transport.

W.O. 1:890. 1776-1783. Statistics relative to the forces in America and the West Indies. This volume includes lists of camp necessities and equipage, such as wagons, blankets, tents, canteens, haversacks, etc.; names of transports and victualling ships; hospital and medical returns.

W.O. 1:991-1020. 1776-1783. Miscellaneous letters to the secretary at war. These volumes throw light on many different aspects of military administration. They are especially useful as showing the methods of recruiting and the actual working of the Press Acts of 1778 and 1779.

W.O. 3:1-6. 1767-1778. Letter-books of the commander-in-chief and adjutant general of the army in Great Britain. Volume 5 contains the letters from Edward Harvey, adjutant general during the early years of the Revolution, to various general officers. It is very useful for a study of the recruiting and augmenting of the army.

W.O. 4:273-275. 1775-1784. American letter-books. These volumes contain dispatches of the secretary at war to commanders and general officers in America. They deal with a great variety of routine matters such as leaves of absence, promotions, exchanges, warrants for pay, warrants for courts-martial, etc.

W.O. 4:965-967. 1778-1781. Press Act letter-books. These volumes are the chief source of information relative to the operation of the two press acts, 18 Geo. III, c. 53, and 19 Geo.. III, c. 10. They should be supplemented by W.O. 1:991-1008.

W.O. 24:480-523. 1774-1783. Registers of military establishments. These ledgers contain yearly lists of the established regiments. The lists give not only the number of men on the rolls of each regiment but also the number of companies, battalions, commissioned and non-commissioned officers of each rank, and drummers, which composed each regiment. They constitute a mine of information respecting regimental organization.

W.O. 25:32-37. 1772-1783. Commission books. Series 1.

W.O. 25:91-95. 1775-1783. Commission books. Series II. These books, as the titles indicate, contain the commissions of officers connected with the army. They are especially helpful in determining the functions of numerous special officials appointed in connection with the work of recruiting, provisioning, and transporting the forces.

W.O. 28:2-10. 1777-1783. Headquarters records, America. This group contains many letters and returns of a miscellaneous character, which deal with such subjects as hospitals, engineers, artillery, ordnance, rations, forage, pay, appointments, courts-martial, and provincial corps.

W.O. 47:85-102. 1775-1783. Ordnance board minutes. The minute books are essential to an understanding of the functions of the Ordnance department. Valuable data may occasionally be found in them relative to the engineers and artillery, both of which fell within the jurisdiction of the Ordnance board.

W.O. 54:689. 1774-1792. Miscellaneous registers, pay lists, etc.

W.O. 55:369-376. 1774-1783. Entry books of warrants and orders in Council.

Volumes 371 and 374 contain important lists of transports employed by the Ordnance department during the war.

W.O. 60:11-33. 1774-1781. Commissariat accounts. This collection of documents is of marked importance. It includes a large number of books, ledgers, and statistical charts, kept by the commissariat department in New York. Many of these date from the period of Brook Watson, who was commissary general in New York at the close of the war. They are of much value for the flood of light which they throw on the problems of transport and food supply and on the relation of these problems to the fortunes of the war.

Wier-Robinson Correspondence. Copies of Letters from Dan'l Wier Esq Commissary to the Army in America to J. Robinson Esqr Secretary to the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury and Copies of Letters from John Robinson Esqr in Answer thereto in the Year 1777. A folio volume of 125 pages recently acquired by the Pennsylvania Historical Society and graciously opened to the inspection of the author by Dr. Montgomery, the librarian. Said to have been prepared for Lord North's examination, it contains many illuminating letters and tables of statistics relative to the provisioning of Howe's army during the campaign of 1777.


Acts of the Privy Council, Colonial Series, 1766-1783, edited by J. Munro (Hereford, 1912).

Annual Register, 1774-1783 (London, 1775-1785), 10 vols.

Army Lists, 1775-1783 (London, 1775-1783), 9 vols. Yearly lists of all commissioned officers. They are of assistance in tracing the regimental growth of the army from 1775 to 1783. Regiments are often referred to in the documents not by number but by the name of the colonel. This is frequently confusing, especially as new colonels were constantly being appointed. If the colonel's name be known, the Army Lists enable one to determine the proper number of his regiment.

Calendar of Home Office Papers, of the Reign of George III, 1760-1775, edited by J. Redington (vols. I, II) and R. A. ,Roberts (vols. 111, IV);, London, 1881-1889, 4 vols. These volumes occasionally shed light upon various aspects of army administration.

Calendar of Treasury Books and Papers, 1729-1745, edited by W. A. Shaw (London, 1897-1903), 5 vols. These volumes illustrate some aspects of the relationship of the Treasury board to the army.

Court and City Register, 1774-1783 (London, 1774-1783), 10 vols. Yearly registers of the incumbents of the various public offices. Helpful in studying the administrative personnel and system of the army. The volumes also contain lists of the established regiments, with statements regarding their location and numbers.

Dartmouth Manuscripts, in 11th, 14th, and 15th Reports of Historical Manuscripts Commission (London, 1887, 1895, 1896), 3 vols. Contain several important references to the plan of taking Russian troops into British pay in 1775-1776.

Journal of the House of Commons, 1547-1803, reprinted by order of the House (London, 1803), 57 vols. Aside from its general importance as a means of tracing military legislation, the Commons Journal is valuable in studying the army for two reasons. In the first place, it contains the annual army estimates, which enable one to determine in any given year (1) the geographical distribution of the army, (2) the total strength of the army, (3) the strength of every established regiment. In the second place, the Journal contains copies of the agreements entered into by the crown on the one hand and by towns or individuals on the other relative to raising regiments for service in the war. The Journal also contains the "Reports of the Commissioners of Accounts, " q.v.

Journal of the House of Lords. Vols. 34-39 cover the period, 1774-1783.

London Gazette, The. London, 1775-1783. An official organ of the government, issued weekly and containing military proclamations, lists of promotions, excerpts from the dispatches, and other official matter regarding the forces.

Reports of Parliamentary Committees:

"Report from the Committee appointed to consider the State of His Majesty's Land Forces and Marines, 1746, " in vol. II of Reports from Committees of the House of Commons (1803). A very minute and useful account of the army clothing system.

"Report from the Select Committee, to whom it was referred to consider and examine the accounts of Extraordinary Services incurred and paid, and not provided for by Parliament, which have been laid before the House of Commons in the year 1776, 1777, and 1778" (London, 1778). This report is exceedingly useful for the study of provision contracts and the victualling system. It devotes considerable attention to the rum contracts. For the sake of brevity it is referred to in the footnotes as "Report on Army Extras."

Fifteen Reports from the commissioners of accounts, 1780, 1787, in vols. 38-42 of the Commons Journal. Many of these reports contain valuable data respecting the administration of the army. They amply repay examination. Worthy of especial note are the 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th reports, dealing with the paymaster general and the transport service. The appendices to the reports include many letters, commissions, statistics, and memoranda, which are not to be found in the manuscript official records.

"Report from the Committee appointed to consider the Ordnance Estimate of 1783." Yields a few bits of information relative to the artillery at the close of the war.

Thirty-six Reports from the select committee on finance, 1797-1798, in vols. XII-XIII of the Reports from Committees of the House of Commons (1803). The following reports contain much useful information regarding the administration of the British army at the time of the American Revolution: the 17th Report, on the Admiralty and Navy board; the 18th, on the Transport office; the 19th, on the War office; the 20th, on the Barrack office; the 32d, on the Victualling office; the 33d, on the Medical board; the 34th, on Chatham Chest, Greenwich Hospital, and Chelsea Hospital; the 35th, on army expenditure; the 36th, on the secretary at war, judge advocate general, and commissary general of musters.

Statutes at Large, Ruffhead's edition (London, 1763-1800), 18 vols.


A Representation of the Cloathing of His Majesty's Houshold [sic] and of all the Forces upon the Establishment of Great Britain and Ireland, 1742.

A View of the Evidence (London, 1783). Contains the evidence of various officers before a committee of the House of Commons appointed in 1779 "to examine into the conduct of Sir William Howe, Lord Howe, and General Burgoyne." Considerable information relative to army organization in America.

Bew, J., A Letter to the Author of a Pamphlet entitled Considerations upon the different modes of finding recruits for the army (London, 1776).

Burgoyne, John, A State of the Expedition from Canada (London, 1780). An invaluable source of data respecting the organization of Burgoyne's forces on his ill-starred expedition from Canada in 1777. The account deals very minutely with the problems of transport and food supply.

Burgoyne, John, Orderly Book, edited by E. B. O'Callaghan (Albany, 1860). This volume contains a considerable amount of minute information relative to regimental organization.

Cadell, T., Considerations upon the Different Modes of Finding Recruits for the Army (London, 1775).

Cornwallis, Charles, Correspondence of Charles, first marquis Cornwallis, edited by Charles Ross (London, 1859), 3 vols. These volumes add little to the official dispatches.

Correspondence of George III with Lord North, edited by W. B. Donne (London, 1867), 2 vols. These letters are invaluable for the light which they throw on the military policy of the king and his relations to the army during the period, 1775-1783. His attitude on the question of "raising men for rank" is fully revealed.

Digby, (Lieut.) William, Journal, edited by James Phinney Baxter (Albany, 1887).

Hadden, James M., Journal, edited by H. Rogers (Albany, 1884). Hadden was an officer of the artillery in Burgoyne's army in 1777. His Journal is one of the chief sources of information respecting that branch of the service.

Howe, (Sir) William, Narrative (London, 1781). Like Burgoyne's State of the Expedition from Canada, Howe's account of his career in America incidentally throws considerable light on the organization of the British forces.

Howe, (Sir) William, Orderly Book, edited by B. F. Stevens (London, 1890). Contains a quantity of minute information regarding regimental organization, courts-martial, camp life, etc.

Jones, Thomas, History of New York during the Revolutionary War, edited by E. F. DeLancey (New York, 1879), 2 vols. Although the author of this work was a judge, he did not write judicially. If allowances are made for prejudice, however, the work becomes a useful contemporary account of the British occupation of New York. Especially worthy of note is the chapter on the "Base Transactions of Commissaries, Quartermasters, Barrackmasters, and Engineers, in America." It places His Majesty's forces in a bad light, but much of the data is confirmed by other contemporary sources.

Kemble Papers, in New York Historical Society Collections for 1883 and 1884 (New York, 1884-1885), 2 vols. Kemble was deputy adjutant general from 1773 to 1779 under Gage, Howe, and Clinton. Besides his journals, these volumes contain the army orders of the generals whom he served. They are thus a most valuable source of data regarding many aspects of British army organization.

Lamb, R., Journal (Dublin, 1809).
Lamb, R., Memoir (Dublin, 1811).
Lamb was a sergeant in the 9th Foot. He participated in Burgoyne's campaign, 1777. His Journal and Memoir are among the few works that furnish a picture of the life of the British soldier as drawn by himself.

Minute Book of a Board of General Officers of the British Army in New York, 1781. New York Historical Society Collections, 1916. New York, 1916. Invaluable in the study of provisioning and transport.

Montrésor, John, Journals, edited by G. D. Scull, in New York Historical Society Collections for 1881 (New York, 1882). As an officer of the engineers in America at the time of the Revolution, Captain John Montrésor was in a position to furnish much information respecting that branch of the service. The above-named volume also contains the journal of his father, Colonel James Montrésor, who served as an engineer in America at the time of the French and Indian War.

Observations on the Prevailing Abuses in the British Army, Arising from the Corruption of Civil Government. By the Honourable *** an Officer (London, 1775). A warm denunciation of the evils of army life. Interesting as embodying a contemporary point of view.

Pattison, (Major General) James, Letters. New York Historical Society Collections for 1875 (New York, 1876). Pattison was colonel in the artillery as well as major general in the king's forces in America. His letters shed light upon many aspects of army organization but are especially valuable in studying the artillery.

Riedesel, Mrs. General, Letters and Journals, translated from the original German by W. L. Stone (Albany, 1867). An entertaining picture of social life in the army during a campaign in America. Madame Riedesel accompanied her husband, General Riedesel, on Burgoyne's famous expedition in 1777. She looks at the army from an interesting angle, that of an army officer's wife. Her comments on the moral tone of Burgoyne and his staff may seem to be the froth of idle gossip, but they are confirmed by other' writers.

Schenck, David, North Carolina, 1780-1781 (Raleigh, 1889).

Simcoe, John G., Military Journal (New York, 1844). Although chiefly concerned with the history of a provincial corps, this work contains occasional references to the organization of the regular forces.

Simes, Thomas, Military Guide (London, 1776), 2 vols. Simes' Military Guide was intended to be a vade mecum for British officers. Volume I contains model forms for all kinds of military papers and reports; regulations regarding reviews, camps, hospitals, tactics, etc.; and charts and orders relative to uniforms in the British service. Volume II is a military dictionary in which the meaning of many contemporary military terms may be ascertained.

Stedman, Charles, History of the American War (London, 1794), 2 vols. Disappointingly meagre in its yield of facts respecting British army organization during the war.

Stevens, Benjamin F., The Clinton-Cornwallis Controversy (London, 1888), 2 vols. A reprint of six controversial pamphlets written by Clinton and Cornwallis relative to the Yorktown campaign, with lengthy transcripts from their dispatches. The volumes occasionally yield material relative to the feeding and transport of the troops during the southern campaigns.

Tarleton, Banastre, History of the Campaigns of 1780-1781 in the Southern Provinces of North America (Dublin, 1787). The many valuable documents in this volume occasionally offer data respecting the organization of the forces under Cornwallis, though emphasis is laid chiefly upon military operations.

Walpole, Horace, Last Journals (London, 1910), 2 vols.


Andrews, Charles M., Guide to the Manuscript Materials for the History of the United States to 1783, in the British Museum, in Minor London Archives, and in the Libraries of Oxford and Cambridge (Washington, D. C., 1908).

Andrews, Charles M., Guide to the Materials for American History to 1783, in the Public Record Office of Great Britain (Washington, D. C., 1912-1914), 2 vols. These volumes chart a sea of documents. The notes and introductions, especially to the War Office and Admiralty papers, are replete with data not elsewhere accessible in print, relative to the organization and administration of the royal forces during the eighteenth century. The functions and relations of the various boards and officers concerned with military affairs are instructively set forth.

Barrington, Shute, Political Life of William Wildman, viscount Barrington (London, 1814). This is an excellent biography of an official who was vitally connected with the administration of the British army during the early stages of the Revolution. The author demonstrates most conclusively Barrington's disapproval of the king's policy regarding the colonists, and shows that like Lord North he begged repeatedly to be allowed to resign. These facts become of considerable importance in interpreting Barrington's career as secretary at war.

Belcher, Henry, First American Civil War (London, 1911), 2 vols. This work is of little value as regards the history of battles and campaigns, because the author has based his account largely on histories the accuracy of which is now discredited. It contains, however, two admirable chapters on the "Forces of the Crown" in the eighteenth century, which lay particular emphasis upon the social aspects of the army, the classes from which it was recruited, the hardships and amenities of military life, and the character of officers and men. The author shows considerable acquaintance with contemporary material of an unofficial character, such as letters, newspapers, and memoirs. The appendix to volume I contains a valuable table showing the history of every British regiment in the war.

Butler, L., Annals of the King's Royal Rifle Corps (London, 1913), 2 vols. This account of the 60th Royal American Regiment, which played an important part in the Revolution, is one of the best regimental histories.

Calver, William L., "The British Army Button in the American Revolution," Pt. I. New York Historical Society quarterly Bulletin, vol. VII, No. 1, April, 1923, pp. 10-23.

Calver, William L., "Belt Plates and Badges of the British Army in the American Revolution." New York Historical Society Quarterly Bulletin, vol. VIII, No. 4, January, 1925, pp. 91-108.

Cannon, Richard, Historical Records of the British Army; comprising the history of every regiment in His Majesty's service (London, 1834-1850), 71 vols. Few of these histories deal with the Revolutionary careers of British regiments. Such volumes as do so, however, enable one to follow the story of the regiment in America and sometimes yield useful data relative to its orgin. Much of Cannon's material has been epitomized by Chichester with important additions in his Records and Badges of the British Army, q.v. The records of the 71st, 72d, and 73d regiments were found especially helpful.

Carrington, Henry B., Battles of the American Revolution (New York, 1876).

Channing, Edward, History of the United States (New York, 1905-1912), vol. III.

Volume III contains a brief but excellent summary of the character of the British army at the time of the Revolution.

Chichester, Henry M., Records and Badges of the British Army (London, 1902). An invaluable compendium of British regimental history. It comprises in concise terms most of the material to be found in the Cannon series (q.v.) and additional facts gleaned from unofficial regimental histories and contemporary sources. A noteworthy feature of the work is the bibliographical notes which follow the record of each regiment.

Clode, Charles M., Military Forces of the Crown (London, 1869), 2 vols. An invaluable treatise on the legal and administrative aspects of the army. The appendices contain much illustrative material gleaned from documentary sources.

Connolly, T. W. J., History of the Sappers and Miners. 2d ed. (London, 1857), 2 vols.

Curtis, Edward E., "The Provisioning of the British Army in Boston," Magazine of American History, June-July, 1915.

De Fonblanque, Edward B., Episodes from the Life and Correspondence of John Burgoyne (London, 1876).

Dictionary of National Biography, edited by Leslie Stephen and Sidney Lee (London, 1885-1890), 63 vols. These volumes contain excellent vignettes of many of the British commanders.

Duncan, Francis, History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery (London, 1879), 2 vols. Volume I contains many curious and interesting facts gleaned from official and unofficial sources relative to the career of the royal artillery in America, 1775-1783. The author has treated his subject in a lively, vivacious manner.

Eelking, Max von, Die Deutschen Hülfstruppen im Nordamerikan Befreiungskriege (Hanover, 1863). Contains a quantity of interesting and valuable data respecting military affairs, most of which the author secured from the letters and diaries of Hessian soldiers who served in America. Much light is incidentally shed upon the organization of the British forces. Although the author is strongly biased in favor of the German auxiliaries, his conclusions regarding the value of their service to England during the struggle are based upon such a wealth of contemporary evidence that they cannot be lightly dismissed as mere prejudice.

Farmer, Henry George, Memoirs of the Royal Artillery Band, its Origin, History, and Progress. An Account of the Rise of Military Music in England (London, 1904). Very helpful in tracing the history of military music in the British army at the time of the American Revolution.

Farrow, Edward S., Military Encyclopedia (New York, 1885).

Fisher, Sydney G., The Struggle for American Independence (Philadelphia, 1908), 2 vols. Chapter XLII contains a good summary of the strategic problems which confronted the British army in attempting to subdue America. Fisher's character sketches of the British generals are suggestive.

Fortescue, J. W., "A Chapter on Red Coats," Macmillans Magazine, September, 1893.

Fortescue, J. W., History of the British Army (London, 1899-1920), 10 vols. Volume III treats of the Revolution. Although written from the British standpoint, it is by all odds the best purely military account of the war. No other printed work contains an equal amount of information based on documentary sources relative to the administration and organization of the forces during the period from 1775 to 1783. I have had occasion to use many of the same documents as Mr. Fortescue and can testify to his thoroughness and accuracy.

Fortescue, J. W., The British Army, 1783-1802 (Edinburgh, 1905). This volume contains a most valuable survey of army organization at the close of the Revolution.

Frothingham, Richard, History of the Siege of Boston (Boston, 1873). Occasionally yields data relative to the provisioning of the British garrison.

Goodenough, W. H., and Dalton, J. C., Army Book of the British Empire (London, 1893).

Greener, William, The Gun (London , 1835). Chiefly valuable for its minute description of Ferguson's breech-loader, which was used by some of the troops in British service.

Grose, Francis, Military Antiquities (London, 1801), 2 vols. The main emphasis of this well-known work is laid upon the history of the British army during the middle ages and the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. It contains some useful data, however, respecting the pay, clothing, and equipment of the forces during the latter half of the eighteenth century.

Hatch, Louis C., The Administration of the American Revolutionary Army, Harvard Historical Studies, X (New York, 1904). Valuable for the purpose of comparing the organization of the American army with that of the British.

Johnston, Henry P., Yorktown Campaign (New York, 1881).

Johnston, Henry P., Battle of Harlem Heights (New York, 1897).

Kappey, J. A., Military Music (London, 1804).

King, C. Cooper, Story of the British Army (London, 1897). The author of this work gives a popular and rather superficial account of the army during the Revolution.

Lecky, W. E. H., The American Revolution: Edited by J. A. Woodburn (New York, 1907). Occasional passages may be found relative to the military measures of the government during the war. Political conditions as they affected the army are touched upon.

Lloyd, Ernest M., A Review of the History of Infantry (New York, 1908). Explains the tactics of British infantry at the period of the war and traces the war's effect on them.

Lowell, Edward J., The Hessians (New York, 1884). This work compares unfavorably with Max von Eelking's Die Deutschen Hülfstruppen.

Maitland, Frederick W. Constitutional History of England (Cambridge, 1908).

Memorial History of Boston, edited by Justin Windsor (Boston, 1880-1881), 4 vols.

Nevill, R., British Military Prints (London, 1909).

Oman, C. W. C., Wellington's Army (New York, 1912). By the time of Wellington, army conditions had not changed radically since the American Revolution. Many methods and customs prevalent in 1775 were still in vogue in 1805. With certain allowances this work is a rich mine of information regarding the army in the last quarter of the eighteenth century.

Porter, (Maj. Gen.) Whitworth, and Watson, (Sir) Charles M., History of the Corps of Royal Engineers (London, 1889-1913), 3 vols. Contains considerable information relative to the part played by the engineers in the American Revolution.

Richards, Walter, Her Majesty's Army (London, 1888-1891), 3 vols. A popular account of the regiments composing the British army at the time of Queen Victoria. The volumes are occasionally helpful in tracing regimental history.

Rogerson, W., Historical Records of the Fifty-Third (London, 1890).

Sawyer, Charles Winthrop, Firearm in American History, 1600-1800 (Boston, 1910).

Scott, Sibbald D., The British Army, its Origin, Progress, and Equipment (London, 1868-1880), 3 vols. These volumes deal mainly with the state of the army in the seventeenth century.

Skrine, Francis H., Fontenoy (London, 1906). Devotes several pages to an excellent description of the British soldier's uniform and equipment at the middle of the eighteenth century.

Smythies, R. H. R., Historical Records of the 40th Regiment (Devonport, 1894).

Stocqueler, Joachim H., History of the British Army (London, 1871). This work is a somewhat bald résumé of the history of the British army from 1660 to 1868. The author limits his narration to military operations, and eschews practically all reference to the administrative history of the army.

Stryker, William S., Battles of Trenton and Princeton (New York, 1898). The method of provisioning the British forces in New Jersey at the time of the battles of Trenton and Princeton receives some treatment. The appendix contains several documents illustrative of the process.

Trevelyan, George Otto, The American Revolution (New York, 1905-1912), 4 vols. Contains several pages, based on contemporary sources, describing the character of the army officers. Also valuable for occasional quotations relative to the army from contemporary newspapers. In my footnotes this work is referred to simply as "Trevelyan." The work noted below is referred to by its full title.

Trevelyan, George Otto, George the Third and Charles Fox (New York, 1912-1914), 2 vols.

Wheeler, Owen, The War Office, Past and Present (London, 1914). Of but little value for our period.

Williamson, J., Treatise of Military Finance (London, 1782). Invaluable in the study of military finance.