Friedrich Adolf Riedesel Biography & Facts


    About the author

    Edward St. Germain.
    Edward St. Germain

    Edward A. St. Germain created in 1996. He was an avid historian with a keen interest in the Revolutionary War and American culture and society in the 18th century. On this website, he created and collated a huge collection of articles, images, and other media pertaining to the American Revolution. Edward was also a Vietnam veteran, and his investigative skills led to a career as a private detective in later life.

    Friedrich Adolf Riedesel by Johann Heinrich Schröder, c. 1795.
    Friedrich Adolf Riedesel by Johann Heinrich Schröder, c. 1795.


      Quick facts

      • Born: 3 June 1738 in Lauterbach, Hesse (now in Germany).
      • Friedrich Adolf Riedesel was a German baron and lieutenant general in the British army, commanding Hessian troops during the American Revolutionary War.
      • Riedesel advocated for humane treatment of American prisoners, earning respect from both sides of the conflict.
      • He and his troops were captured at the Battle of Saratoga in 1777, becoming part of the Convention Army held as prisoners of war.
      • During his captivity, Riedesel wrote detailed diaries and letters, providing valuable historical insights into the war and its conditions.
      • His wife, Baroness Frederika von Riedesel, accompanied him during the campaign, and her writings also offer a unique perspective on the war.
      • Died: 6 January 1800 in Braunschweig (now in Germany).


      Friedrich Adolf Riedesel was a German military officer and nobleman who lived from 1738 to 1800. He was born in 1738, in Lauterbach, a town in the state of Hesse, Germany, to Johann Wilhelm Riedesel and his wife, Sophia von Borcke. The Riedesel family was a prominent and wealthy family in Hesse, and Friedrich Adolf was the second son.

      Riedesel began his military career at a young age, joining the Hessian army at the age of 16. He quickly rose through the ranks, becoming a lieutenant in 1759 and a captain in 1761. He served in the Seven Years’ War (1756—63), a conflict between several European powers that lasted from 1756 to 1763. Riedesel fought on the side of the British, serving as a commander of Hessian troops under the British General John Burgoyne.

      After the Seven Years’ War, Riedesel returned to Hesse and married Frederika Charlotte Louise von Massow. The couple had nine children together. In 1776, Riedesel was sent to North America to fight in the American Revolutionary War, again serving under Burgoyne. He was given command of a regiment of Hessian troops and fought in several battles, including the Battles of Saratoga (1777).

      Riedesel was captured by the Americans at Saratoga, along with General Burgoyne and his army. He and his men were held as prisoners of war; Riedesel was finally released in a prisoner exchange in 1780. During the winter of 1780—81 he commanded troops on Long Island. He returned to Europe in 1783 and continued his military career, serving in the Hessian army and rising to the rank of lieutenant-general. He retired in 1793 and died in 1800.

      Friedrich Adolf Riedesel was a skilled military officer and a devoted family man. He is remembered for his bravery in battle and his dedication to his country. His memoirs, which he wrote during his captivity in America, are considered an important historical document and provide valuable insights into the life of a German soldier during the American Revolutionary War.

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