The Events Leading up to the Stockbridge Massacre of August 31, 1778
by Richard S. Walling
Richard S. Walling received his Baccalaureate degree and did his graduate work at Rutgers University in New Jersey, where he is presently a teacher in Middlesex County, and has been named Teacher of the Year in 1996. He is also a Historic Preservation Planner, consulting for governmental agencies in New York and New Jersey, and has been a Consultant onThe American Revolution for The Learning Channel and The American Revolution for The History Channel. he is also the President of Friends of Monmouth Battlefield and Board member of the Native American Institute, Columbia-Greene Community College, Hudson, NY. Last but not least, he is the recipient of the Sons of the American Revolution Bronze Good Citizenship Award. He may be contacted by clicking on his name above.
On a hot day in August, 1778 a fierce contest was fought between Patriot and British forces in the woods, fields and rock ledges of the Bronx, along the Westchester County border. Among the men who fought that day was a group of Native Americans who were formed into a special military unit; a unit that represented both the unique role of Native American warriors who fought in the Continental Army, and of the special bond of shared kinship and culture. This is their story.
Prior to the outbreak of the American Revolution, a well established pattern of kinship and shared culture existed amongst the Native American tribes in the northeast. For example, as early as the 17th century, New England Algonquin peoples moved into the Hudson River Valley as a result of warfare and Euro-American colonial expansion and mingled with the Mohican.
In the early 18th century, this process accelerated, and was also influenced by the introduction of Christian missionaries such as the Moravians and Presbyterians. Families moved across vast distances with a freedom hard to imagine in the late 20th century to people accustomed to super-highways and airline travel. In practically every village from Rhode Island to western Massachusetts, to Iroquoia to the Ohio, Native Americans had family members and friendships along the way.
Examples of this network include the Moravian missions of upstate New York, Pennsylvania and the Ohio country. Delawares and Mohicans, Narragansetts and Mohegans all mingled together in mission communities such as Brotherton in New Jersey, Shekomeko in New York, Bethlehem in Pennsylvania and Gnadenhutten in Ohio. Traditional culture was also reflected in other communities in Indian Country, ranging from Schaghticoke near Albany to Coshocton west of Fort Pitt. Indians, traders, diplomats, soldiers and missionaries carried on an extensive cross-cultural and intra-cultural network which played a significant role in early American history.
Another example of this intra-cultural relationship was the association of George Washington with the Montour family of the northwestern frontier. While an officer with the Virginia militia during the French & Indian War, Washington was careful to cultivate extremely close relations with Andrew Montour, a Native American leader of Seneca and/or Delaware blood. Andrew died in 1774, but his son John Montour, was an important Delaware military leader on the Pennsylvania/Ohio frontier. Captain John Montour was a key figure in that region and commanded a company of Delaware Indians in the American Army. Montour's visit to the Oneida and Tuscarora community at Schenectady, New York in May, 1782 reflects the closeness of the Indian world.
This common kinship and culture was a key factor in the creation of the Indian Corps of 1778.
While a number of Native American men living in New England and New York communities served in local, state, and continental forces, a new initiative was proposed by George Washington in early 1778 focusing on a special corps of Indian troops. It was at this same time, during the depressing months of the Valley Forge encampment, that John Laurens and General Varnum had proposed to Washington the formation of a special corps of black soldiers. It is not coincidental that the Commander in Chief began to voice his ideas of utilizing Native warriors at this same time for special duties as part of the American Army.
Washington to the Committee of
Congress with the Army
Headquarters, January 29, 1778
...I shall now in the last place beg leave to subjoin a few Matters unconnected with the general subject of these remarks....The enemy have set every engine at work, against us, and have actually called savages and even our own slaves to their assistance; would it not be well, to employ two or three hundred Indians against General Howe's army the ensuing campaign? ...Such a body of indians, joined by some of our Woodsmen, would probably strike no small terror into the British and foreign troops....
Committee at Camp to Henry Laurens
Camp near the Valley Forge, Feb. 20th 1778
...We now, Sir, beg Leave to submit to your Consideration, a Proposition of employing a Number of Indians in the American Army. We have fully discussed it with the General, & upon the maturest Deliberation are induced to recommend it to Congress....
...As it is in Contemplation to form a Flying Army composed of light Infantry & rifle Men under the Direction of Officers distinguished for their Activity & Spirit of Enterprise, it is proposed to mix about 400 Indians with them; being thus incorporated with our own Troops, who are designed to skirmish, act in Detachments & light Parties, as well as lead the Attack...
...If it should meet with your Approbation, Col. Gist a gentleman of much Acquaintance & Experience with the Southern Indians will most cheerfully receive your Commands & is recommended to us by General Washington as a Man of approved Spirit and Conduct...
...The Situation of the Oneidas to the Northward is such, that perhaps it will be found our truest Interest to take them into Service...
March 4, 1778
Extract from the Minutes,
Charles Thomson, Sec.y
Resolved, That General Washington be impowered,
if he thinks it prudent, to employ in the Service of the United
States a body of Indians not exceeding four Hundred, & that
it be left to him to pursue such measures as he judges best for
procuring them, and to employ them, when procured, in such ways
as will annoy the Enemy, without suffering them to injure those
who are friends to the cause of America.
The plan to engage four hundred native warriors did not come to fruition. Troubles both in the deep south with the Cherokee who were predominantly pro-British, and with the fractured Iroquois League of west-central New York, precluded the raising of a significant number of Native American soldiers for service with the Main Continental Army.
In the winter of 1778, LaFayette had met with the Oneida in their territory and agreed to have a fort constructed for their protection. In May, about fifty Oneida warriors arrived at Valley Forge and they were assigned to LaFayette's advance to Barren Hill, just outside of Philadelphia. These men were under the direct command of noted cavalry commander, Allen McLane. After Barren Hill, the Oneida received word from their community that a major British offensive was threatening their homes, and by June 18th, they were escorted back to upstate New York by a young officer of the 1st New York. It was obvious the Oneida were not in a position to provide two hundred warriors for a special Indian regiment.
Nevertheless, the seed was sown in Washington's mind, with the approval of Congress, to engage a specific corps of Indian warriors to act in cooperation with the light infantry of the army. It was natural for Washington to draw upon men already in the army for this special mission, and to augment that force with additional warriors from Stockbridge.
During the Monmouth Campaign, Washington did not have the time to compose the corps of light infantry proposed earlier in the year at Valley Forge. In June, 1778, during the Monmouth Campaign he did send a corps of picked men ahead with General Scott to act as light infantry. After the Battle of Monmouth, once the Continental Army was settled at White Plains, Washington finally was able to implement the plan to establish the American Light Infantry.
Serving in the various regiments in Continental service during thefirst half of 1778 were probably over one hundred Native American men. In addition to individuals serving in the different regiments, on the frontier borders of the new country, various Native men fought in special units composed mostly of warriors from a particular tribe. Instances of these include the Oneida and Tuscarora of upstate New York who had fought at Oriskany and in the Saratoga Campaign of 1777, the various Maine tribes, Delaware's under Captain White Eyes in the Fort Pitt area, and the Catawbas of South Carolina. Additonally, there were also border ranger units with a large percentage of Indian men as in Bedel's Rangers of northern New Hampshire (& Vermont - not yet a state).
Amongst the many New England regiments were dozens of individuals serving from their home communities. Wampanoags from Mashpee, Pequots from Stoningham, Mohegans from Norwich, Narragansetts of Rhode Island and the largest of all contingents, the Stockbridge Mohicans of western New England and New York.
Patrick Frazier's 1992 book, The Mohicans of Stockbridge, provides an in-depth analysis of the role of the Stockbridge men throughout the war. This paper will not review the entire military history of the Stockbridge men during the war, but will focus on their unique role during 1778.
The Stockbridge men had fought as a contingent on several occasions during the first years of the war, from the siege of Boston to Burgoyne's Invasion of 1777. In October of that year, Abraham Nimham, with his company of Indians, made application to Congress, "to be employed in the service of the United States; who, in their proceedings, October 25, 1777, requested that they report themselves to Major General Gates for duty...(DeVoe, p. 189)."
After the winter season of 1777-78, Abraham wrote to General Gates requesting that all of the Stockbridge men be allowed to serve together:
Brothers-I come ask you a question hope you will help us. Now I mention that with which I have been concerned. I had some brothers enlisted into the Continental service in several Regiments. Now Brothers I should be very glad if you will discharge them from their Regiments. We always want to be in one body..when we are in service..do not think that I want get these Indians away from their soldierings..but we want be together always & we will be always ready to go any where you want us to go long as this war stands &tc.
To the Most Honorable
Major Genl Gates
Although no written records directing the Stockbridges to serve together under General Gates have been found, we do know that men from Col. Jackson's 8th Mass. Regiment were with Gates as of the June, 1778. While the regiment was preparing for the summer campaign, the following men from Capt. Cleaveland's Company were "on command with Gen. Gates at White Plains":
Benjamin _mehaueamen [Metacaman]
In July, these men are listed as "on command." Other Stockbridge men may have served with Abraham Nimham under Gates in the early summer; the records are too incomplete to make any definitive conclusion. We do know that other native men were with their respective regiments both in Washington's Main Army and in the Hudson Highlands at this time (June, 1778).
By late July, Washington's army was posted at White Plains in Westchester County, just north of the Kingsbridge area of the Bronx. As the army settled into its new post, Washington began to reorganize his forces. Orders for the 3rd and 6th CT to transfer from the Highlands Department to the Main Army were issued on July 21 and on July 22 several regiments of the Main Army were transferred to the Eastern Department with its focus on Rhode Island. It was at this point of reorganization that Washington's plan for establishing an effective light infantry corps was put into effect.
Headquarters, W. Plains,
Saturday, August 8, 1778
For the Safety and Ease of the army and to be in greater readiness to attack or repel the Enemy, the Commander in Chief for these and many other Reasons orders and directs that a Corps of Light Infantry composed of the best, most hardy and active Marksmen and commanded by good Partizan Officers be draughted from the several Brigades to be commanded by Brigadier General Scott...
While no documentation has been found ordering the establishment of the Indian Corps to act in conjunction with the light infantry, such a special group was formed. Existing regimental muster roles are exact in this matter: In virtually all cases, native men in all of the New England regiments were pulled out of their companies and served "on command with the Indian Company." Men such as Jabez Pottage and Joseph Read of the 7th CT, who had fought at Monmouth, were ordered to the Indian Company. Amos Babcock, 5th MA of Mashpee, David Hatch of Mashpee, Benjamin Jones of Sandwich and Abel Supposon of the 12th MA were in the unit, as were the men of Jackson's 8th MA. To-date, many of the names of other men in the unit await further research as the muster rolls have not survived in the historical record.
The phases used in the muster rolls include, "in the Indian Company," "on command with Endan Comp," "with the Indians on the Lines," "on command with Nimham Indian Capt." Abimeleck Unkas of the 1st CT has an interesting notation on his National Archive's general index card; it refers to an additional record collection as "Indian Corps." Unfortunately, no one has been able to locate this additional record collection at the National Archives, nor have historians contacted ever seen this material.
An additional historical source is found in the Allen McLane Papers in the New-York Historical Society. McLane, of Wilmington, Delaware, was a well-known and much respected partisan officer who operated in various commands including Malcolm's Additional Regiment and later with Lee's Partisan Corps (cavalry). McLane had commanded the Oneida warriors at the Barren Hill skirmish in May, 1778 and was the first American officer to enter Philadelphia as the British were evacuating the city one month later. McLane operated with Dickinson's New Jersey militia during the Monmouth Campaign of late June and was on duty with the Main Army later that summer. Given his skills, daring and experience with Native American warriors, he was selected by General Scott, commander of the American Light Infantry, to coordinate command with Nimham's Company:
You will take charge of the party of Indians annex'd to the Light Corps & You will endeavor to render them as favorable as possible...
You will proceed with them to such place as you may think most opportune for the purpose in annoying the enemy and preventing their Landing or making incursion into the Country...
You will send all intelligence to me in the most full and perspicuous manner...
In all other matters you will conduct yourself in such a manner as your prudence & discretion may point out...
Given under my hand at Philips Borough Aug. 29th 78
Chs Scott B Genl
Capt Allen McLane
As we have seen above, Native American men from the various New England regiments were withdrawn from their units and brigaded together under the command of Captain Abraham Nimham. As to the total number of men involved, we may never be certain. Eyewitnesses place the number from between 40 (General Scott) to 60 (Col. Simcoe). Descriptions of the Indian troops include:
"...It was a corps of Indians of the
Stockbridge tribe and was commanded by their chief, Nimham. They
fell upon the front and both flanks of this outpost so quickly
that only two men escaped. The chief, his son, and the common
warriors were killed on the spot..."
Adjutant General Baurmeister
Morris's House, Sept. 5, 1778
"...they found themselves attacked in
the rear by a body of infantry, and in front by the retreating
light horse who had returned to the charge: - nineteen of the
Indians are missing, six of who have been found dead on the field
of action, the others are supposed to be taken Prisoners; we
have likewise lost a Capt. and six soldiers in that affair..."
Col. Udny Hay to George Clinton
White Plains, Sept. 2, 1778
From the various accounts, the number of men engaged appears to be between forty and sixty. In addition to the men whose names survive in the historical record, we also have a list of Pequot men who died in military service in 1778. As stated in The History of the Town of Ledyard, the following names of men who died during 1778 while in the military appear.
Were any of these men at the Stockbridge Massacre?
The terrible and bloody fight on August 31, 1778 is the subject of a number of works and will not be recounted here. In short, on that day Col. Simcoe of the Queens Rangers led a combined force of more than five hundred loyalists and Hessians in an ambush targeted at the Indian Company. When the skirmish was over, most of the warriors were dead and the British had dealt the Americans a hard blow. One month later, Baylor's dragoons would suffer a similar fate across the Hudson River.
All the reports associated with this bloody skirmish share the same key elements: Simoce's ambush, the des-perate fight put up by the Indians, and the large number of Indians killed. Simcoe puts the number of Indian dead at "near forty," and a contemporary account in Rivington's Gazette states thirty-seven and another in the same paper stated nineteen Indian dead. Scott reported that as of the evening of the battle, fourteen of the forty Indians had returned, leaving some twenty-three unaccounted for.
One source which may bear more weight is that of Thomas F. DeVoe, the 19th century historian who wrote the first critical account of the affair in the Magazine of American History in 1880. A descendant of the DeVoe Family upon whose farm the battle raged, DeVoe had walked the battle-field with his grandmother in the early 19th century. She had been eighteen at the time of the battle and was an eyewitness to the fight and its aftermath. In his 1880 article, DeVoe wrote,
"The greatest struggle, was on the second field north of Daniel DeVoe's house, where the bodies of some seventeen Indians lay, cut and hacked to death; besides many others, who were killed and wounded in their attempt to escape in several directions. It was a terrible conflict, or rather a slaughter of about thirty Indians...Many years afterwards, this fight was a frequent subject of conversation by those of the families who had visited the fields immediately after the conflict..."
How many men were killed? No one can be certain. Given the fact that the Nimham's Indian Company had approximately forty to fifty men, and most were killed in the struggle, a number approaching thirty is not unrealistic. As DeVoe wrote in 1880, the bodies of men found in the woods after the battle, including Daniel Nimham, were taken to a portion of the field, interred and stones placed on top, "not as a monument, but to protect the bodies from further desecration (DeVoe, p. 194)."
As for men captured in the battle, Stockbridge historian Lion Miles has determined that the American officer captured was Nathan Goodale of Massachusetts. Unfortunately for Goodale, due to problems in exchanging officers, he was to remain in the Sugar House Prison in lower Manhattan for many months. As for the two Stockbridge men reported captured, research has identified these men. What participants at that time did not know was that both men were not of the Stockbridge tribe, but were Native men of Connecticut.
Jabez Pottage - Pension Account
7th Connecticut, Res. - Windham
"In the Spring of the Year 1777 he again inlisted a private Soldier for three years into the Continental Army in a Company commanded by Capt. Vine Elderkin in Col. Herman Swift's Regiment in the Connct Line of the American Army, the sd. Company was afterwards commanded by Captain Convers - and in said Company & Regiment he faithfully served against the common Enemy, till the Spring of the year 1780 when he was discharged from service and during the sd three years he was in several skirmishes & in the battle of Monmouth, and afterwards while in a scouting party & near Kingsbridge he was taken prisoner by the enemy & carry d into New York and there kept in the sugar house four months & two days and was then exchanged, and again joined said Company & served the whole term of the three years aforesaid.
his + mark
sworn in 1818 when Jabez was 68 years old
The second Indian man taken at the Massacre appears to be Joseph Read of Fairfield, Connecticut. Read was also in the 7th CT and the monthly company returns state the following:
Bradley's Regt./Lacy's Co. August 1778
Joseph Read on Comd with Indian Corps September 1778
Joseph Read Captivated, Septemr _th 1778
With this research, we have been able to identify the three men captured as mentioned by contemporary accounts.
In September, Washington wrote to Jedidiah Huntington of the Connecticut Brigade requesting that he release the four remaining Stockbridge Indians from their regiments due to the severe setback suffered by the tribe at Kingsbridge. This example of shifting of men and the initial process of detaching various soldiers from their home regiments to serve in the Indian Company caused confusion in the military records. In the aftermath of the Massacre several men were reported as deserted from their regiments, when in fact, they were allowed to go home.
Of the other men in the Indian Company, most returned to their regiments. Upon his return from captivity, Jabez Pottage served out the war with the 7th CT as did friend Joseph Read. When discharged after three years of service, Pottage joined Sheldon's Dragoons in 1781. In fact, the entire corps of Light Infantry was disbanded in the early fall, and the men went back to their regiments in preparation for going into winter quarters.
And so came an end to what Washington had planned as the creation of a "Flying Army composed of light Infantry & rifle Men mix[ed with] about 400 Indians with them; being thus incorporated with our own Troops, who are designed to skirmish, act in Detachments & light Parties, as well as lead the Attack..." The anticipation made by Washington in the desperate days of Valley Forge was altered by the events of that year. The Oneida warriors were at home, defending their families and property from their pro-British brethren, and the arrival of the French army and navy in July, 1778 lessened the necessity of employing special forces such as the Indian regiment. Finally, with winter approaching and the decimation of the Indian Corps at Kingsbridge on August 31, there was no practical method of rebuilding and sustaining this unique strike force.
To be sure, the Stockbridge Indians and their fellow Algonquin and Iroquois neighbors and relations continued to play crucial roles in the remaining years of the war. The Oneida and Tuscarora bore the burden of internecine warfare on the border when their villages were burned out in retribution for Sullivan's Expedition in 1779. Later in the war, many of these refugees found comfort with the Stockbridge in Massachusetts. The Delaware Indians tried to remain neutral on the frontier, until Captain White Eyes was murdered, the Americans could not sustain them as allies, and the brutal extermination of Moravian converts at Gnadenhutten in 1782.
The story of the Stockbridge Mohicans continued well past the war and extends into the present. The shared kinship and culture were evident in the years just after the Revolution when New England and New York Indians shared in the effort to adapt to the realpolitik world of a culture bent on land acquisition and the exploitation of nature. The establishment of New Stockbridge and Brothertown, all on land gifted by the Oneida after the war, is a clear demonstration of the communal bond that, while predating the American Revolution, was fastened forever by the blood shed by the Indian men who had fought and died together on a hot summer's day in 1778.
Avery, Rev. John: History of the Town of Ledyard 1650-1900; Noyes & Davis, Norwich, CT 1901.
Baker, Henry A.: History of Montville; Press of Case, Lockwood & Brainard Co.; Hartford, CT 1896.
National Society, Daughters of the American
Revolution: Minority Military Service series:
New Hampsire/Vermont 1991
Rhode Island 1988
Miles, Lion: Stockbridge Indian Massacre Continued; Journal of the Native American Institute, Coumbia-Greene Community College; Vol. 2., No. 1, Winter, 1999
National Archives Records, American Revolution Series
Walling, Richard S.: Death in the Bronx; the Stockbridge Indian Massacre, August 31, 1778; Journal of the Native American Institute, Coumbia-Greene Community College; Vol. 1., No. 2, Spring,1998
Walling, Richard S.: Men of Color at the Battle of Monmouth; Longstreet House Press, Hightstown, NJ 1994.
Compilation of Native American soldiers from New England by state. (CT - 90, MA - 162, RI - 25, NH/VT - 21, ME - 240: 538 total)
George Washington Papers, Library of Congress
Allen McClane Papers, New-York Historical Society
LaFayette Papers (published)
Horatio Gates Papers
Brodhead Papers, Draper Collection, Wisconsin Historical Society
Papers of the Continental Congress, Library of Congress
American Revolution Series, National Archives Records
Adams, Evelyn Crady. "Philips' Fort (1780), Nolin Station." Register of the Kentucky Historical Society, 58 (October 1960), pp. 308-321.
Almeida, Dierdre. "The Stockbridge Indian in the American Revolution." Historical Journal of Western Massachusetts, 4 (Fall 1975), pp. 34-39.
Amory, Thomas C. "Sullivan's Expedition Against the Six Nations 1779." Magazine of American History, 4 (January 1880), pp. 420-426.
Amory, Thomas C. "The Expedition under General Sullivan in 1779." Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 20 (January 1883), pp. 88-94.
Appel, John C. "Colonel Daniel Brodhead and the Lure of Detroit." Pennsylvania History, 38 (July 1971), pp. 265-282.
Appel, John C. "The Pocono Forts and the Military Movements of 1779." Pennsylvania Heritage, 8 (Summer 1982), pp. 19-22.
Augur, Leonard A. "St. Francis Through 200 Years." Vermont History, New Ser., 27 (October 1959), pp. 287-304.
Badders, Hurley E. Broken Path: the Cherokee Campaign of 1776. N.P.: Pendleton District [S.C.] Historical and Recreational Commission, 1976.
Bakeless, John E. Background to Glory: The Life of George Rogers Clark. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott, 1957.
Ballard, Edward, ed. "Letters of Gen. Stark and Others Relative to Operations in Cherry Valley in 1778." Historical Magazine, 10 (June 1866), pp. 172-176.
Barnhart, John D. "A New Evaluation of Henry Hamilton and George Rogers Clark." Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 37 (March 1951), pp. 643-652.
Barnhart, John D., ed. Henry Hamilton and George Rogers Clark in the American Revolution with The Unpublished Journals of Lieut. Gov. Henry Hamilton. Crawfordville, Ind.: R.E. Banta, 1951.
Bast, Homer, "Creek Indian Affairs, 1775-1778." Georgia Historical Quarterly, 33 (March 1949), pp. 1-25.
Bleeker, Leonard. The Order Book of Capt. Leonard Bleeker, Major of Brigade in the Early Part of the Expedition under Gen. James Clinton, Against the Indian Settlements of Western New York, in the Campaign of 1779. New York: Joseph Sabin, 1865.
Boosinger, Elby A. "The Cherokee Indians in the Revolutionary War." Master's Thesis, University of Nebraska, 1951.
Boyer, Frank P. "The Klinesmith Massacre." Northumberland County Historical Society Proceedings, 12 (1942), pp. 55-58.
Brady, William Young. "Brodhead's Trail up the Allegheny, 1779." Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine, 37 (March 1954), pp. 19-31.
Brooks, A. B. "The Story of Fort Henry." West Virginia History, 1 (January 1940), pp. 110-118.
Brown, Parker B. "'Crawford's Defeat': A Ballad." Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine, 64 (March 1981), pp. 311-327.
Brown, Parker B. "Reconstructing Crawford's Army of 1782." Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine, 65 (January 1982), pp. 17-36.
Brown, Parker B. "The Battle of Sandusky, June 4-6, 1782." Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine, 65 (April 1982), pp. 115-151.
Brown, Parker B. "The Fate of Crawford Volunteers Captured by Indians Following the Battle of Sandusky in 1782." Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine, 65 (October 1982), pp. 323-340.
Brown, Parker B. "The Search for the Colonel William Crawford Burn site: An Investigative Report." Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine, 68 (January 1985), pp. 43-66.
Buckley, Thomas J., editor. "Attempt on Oswego, 1783." Historical Magazine, 3 (June 1859), pp. 186-187.
Butler, Richard. "The Journal of Richard Butler, 1775: Continental Congress' Envoy to the Western Indians." Edited by Edward G. Williams. Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine, 46 (October 1963), pp. 381-395; 47 (January, April 1964), pp. 31-46, 141-156.
Butler, Zebulon. "Correspondence of Col. Zebulon Butler, Wyoming, June-December 1778." Proceedings and Collections of the Wyoming Historical and Geological Society, 7 (1902), pp. 131-150.
Butler, Zebulon. "Orderly Book of Col. Zebulon Butler, at Wyoming, August-December 1778." Proceedings and Collections of the Wyoming Historical and Geological Society, 7 (1902), pp. 106-130.
Butterfield, Consul Willshire. An Historical Account of the Expedition Against Sandusky under Col. William Crawford in 1782; with Biographical Sketches, Personal Reminiscences, and Descriptions of Interesting Localities; Including, also, Details of he Disastrous Retreat, the Barbarities of the Savages, and the Awful Death of Crawford by Torture. Cincinnati: R. Clarke & Co., 1873.
Butterfield, Consul Willshire. History of George Rogers Clark's Conquest of the Illinois and the Wabash Towns 1778 and 1779. Columbus: F. J. Heer, 1904.
Butterfield, Consul Willshire, ed. Washington-Irvine Correspondence; the official letters which passed between Washington and Brigadier General William Irvine, and between Irvine and others concerning military affairs in the West from 1781 to 1783. Madison, Wisc.: D. Atwood, 1882.
Calloway, Colin G. "'We Have Always Been the Frontier': The American Revolution in Shawnee Country." American Indian Quarterly, 16 (Winter 1992), pp. 39-52.
Campbell, William W. The Border Warfare of New York During the American Revolution; or Annals of Tryon County. New York: Baker and Scribners, 1849.
Cashion, Jerry C. "North Carolina and the Cherokee: The Quest for Land on the Eve of the American Revolution, 1754-1776." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1979.
Caughey, John. "Willing's Expedition down the Mississippi, 1778." Louisiana Historical Quarterly, 15 (January 1932), pp. 5-36.
Chaput, Donald. "Treason or Loyalty? Frontier French in the American Revolution." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, 71 (November 1978), pp. 242-251.
Clark, George Rogers. George Rogers Clark Papers 1771-1783. Edited by James Alton James. 2 vols. Springfield: Illinois State Historical Library, 1912-1926. [Volumes 8 and 19 of the Collections of the Illinois State Historical Library (Volumes 3 and 4 of the "Virginia Series").]
Clark, George Rogers. Col. George Rogers Clark's Sketch of His Campaigns in the Illinois in 1778-9 and Major Bowman's Journal of the Taking of Post St. Vincents. Cincinnati: Robert Clarke, 1869.
Clement, Charles M. "Fort Augusta and its Part in the Sullivan Expedition." Northumberland County Historical Society Proceedings, 5 (1933), pp. 56-70.
Cook, Frederick, editor. Journals of the Military Expedition of Major General John Sullivan Against the Six Nations of Indians in 1779 with Records of Centennial Celebrations. Auburn, N.Y.: Knapp, Peck & Thomson, 1887.
Craft, David. "The Expedition of Col. Thomas Hartley Against the Indians in 1778, to avenge the Massacre of Wyoming." Proceedings and Collections of the Wyoming Historical and Geological Society, 9 (1905), pp. 189-216.
Dain, John. "Attack on Cherry-Valley." Edited by Edward Ballard. Historical Magazine, 2d Ser., 5 (April 1869), pp. 276-277.
Darlington, Mary Carlson, editor. Fort Pitt and Letters from the Frontier. Pittsburgh: J. R. Weldon and Co., 1892.
Davis, Andrew McFarland. "The Employment of Indian Auxiliaries in the American War." English Historical Review, 2 (October 1887), pp. 709-728.
Davis, Andrew McFarland, ed. "Account of the Wyoming Massacre of 1778." Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 23 (October 1887), pp. 340-347. [2d Ser., Vol. 3.]
Davis, Curtis Carroll. "Helping to Hold the Fort, Elizabeth Zane at Wheeling, 1782: A Case Study in Renown." West Virginia History, 44 (Spring 1983), pp. 212-225.
Dendy, John Oliver."Frederick Haldimand and the Defense of Canada, 1778-1784." Ph.D. Dissertation, Duke University, 1972.
Derleth, August. Vincennes: Portal to the West. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1968.
Donnelly, Ralph W. "George Rogers Clark's Row Galley Miami: Virginia Marines in the Ohio Valley, 1782." Virginia Cavalcade, 27 (Winter 1978), pp. 114-117.
Doty, Lockwood R. "The Massacre at Groveland." Quarterly Journal of the New York State Historical Association, 11 (April 1930), pp. 132-140.
Downes, Randolph C. "Indian War on the Upper Ohio, 1779-1782." Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine, 17 (June 1934), pp. 93-115
Downes, Randolph C. "George Morgan, Indian Agent Extraordinary, 1776-1779." Pennsylvania History, 1 (October 1934), pp. 202-216.
Downes, Randolph C. "Cherokee-American Relations in the Upper Tennessee Valley 1776-1791." East Tennessee Historical Society Publications, 8 (1936), pp. 35-53.
Dunkelberger, George F. "The Stock Family Massacre." Northumberland County Historical Society Proceedings, 11 (1939), pp. 128-136.
Dunn, Walter S., Jr. "The Frontier on the Eve of the Revolution." Niagara Frontier, 20 (Winter 1973), pp. 96-111.
Dunnigan, Brian Leigh. "Fort Mackinac: A Revolutionary War Post in Michigan." Military Collector and Historian, 29 (Spring 1977), 15-21.
Edson, Obed. "Brodhead's Expedition Against the Indians of the Upper Allegheny 1779." Magazine of American History, 3 (November 1879), pp. 649-675.
Fee, Walter R. "Colonel George Morgan at Fort Pitt." Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine, 11 (October 1938), pp. 217-224.
Flick, Alexander C. "The Sullivan-Clinton Campaign in 1779." Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society, New Ser., 15 (January 1930), 64-72.
Flick, Alexander C., ed. "New Sources on the Sullivan-Clinton Campaign in 1779." Quarterly Journal of the New York State Historical Association, 10 (July, October 1929), pp. 185-224, 265-317.
Folts, James D., Jr. "The Sullivan Campaign: A Bibliography." University of Rochester Bulletin, 32 (Winter 1979), pp. 51-71.
Fraser, Kathryn M. "Fort Jefferson: George Rogers Clark's Fort at the Mouth of the Ohio River, 1780-1781." Register of the Kentucky Historical Society, 81 (Winter 1983), pp. 1-24.
Ganyard, Robert L. "Threat from the West: North Carolina and the Cherokee, 1776-1778." North Carolina Historical Review, 45 (January 1968), pp. 47-66.
Gerlach, Don R. "Philip Schuyler and the New York Frontier in 1781." New-York Historical Society Quarterly, 53 (April 1969), pp. 148-181.
Goodnough, David. The Cherry Valley Massacre, November 11, 1778; The Frontier Atrocity that Shocked a Young Nation. New York: Franklin Watts, 1968.
Gore, Obadiah, Jr. The Revolutionary War Diary of Lieut. Obadiah Gore, Jr. Edited by R. W. G. Vail. New York: New York Public Library, 1929.
Graham, Louise E. "Fort McIntosh." Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine, 15 (May 1932), pp. 93-119.
Grant, Thomas. "Gen. Sullivan's Expedition to the Genessee Country, 1779: A Journal of General Sullivan's Army, after they left Wyoming." Historical Magazine, 6 (August-September 1862), pp. 233-237, 272-276.
Graymont, Barbara. The Iroquois in the American Revolution. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1972.
Griffis, William Elliot. "Sullivan's Great March Into the Indian Country." Magazine of History, 2 (1905), pp. 295-310, 365-378; 3 (1906), pp. 1-10.
Guzzardo, John C. "The Superintendant and the Ministers: The Battle for Oneida Allegiances, 1761-75." New York History, 57 (July 1976), pp. 255-283.
Hamer, Philip M. "John Stuart's Indian Policy During the Early Months of the American Revolution." Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 17 (December 1930), pp. 351-366.
Hand, Edward. "Correspondence of General Edward Hand of the Continental Line, 1779-1781." Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 33 (1909), pp. 353-360.
Harrison, Lowell H. George Rogers Clark and the War in the West. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1976.
Hayden, Horace Edwin. "Oliver Pollock: His Connection With the Conquest of Illinois, 1778." Magazine of American History, 22 (November 1889), pp. 414-420.
Hayden, Horace Edwin. "Echoes of the Massacre of Wyoming." Proceedings and Collections of the Wyoming Historical and Geological Society, 7 (1902), pp. 78-105; 12 (1911-1912), pp. 69-104.
Hough, Franklin Benjamin, editor. The Northern Invasion of October, 1780: A Series of Papers Relating to the Expeditions from Canada under Sir John Johnson and Others Against the Frontiers of New York, Which were Supposed to Have Connection with Arnold's Treason; Prepared from Originals. New York: Bradford Club, 1866.
Hubley, Adam, Jr. "Adam Hubley, Jr., Ct. Col. Comdt. 11th Penna. Regt., His Journal, Commencing at Wyoming, July 30th, 1779." Edited by John W. Jordan. Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 33 (1909), pp. 129-146, 279-302, 409-422.
Indiana Historical Society. The French, The Indians, and George Rogers Clark in the Illinois Country: Proceedings of an Indiana American Revolution Bicentennial Symposium. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society, 1977.
Irvine, W. A., ed. "Affairs at Fort Pitt in 1782." Historical Magazine, 7 (October 1863), pp. 306-309.
Irvine, W. A., ed. "Expedition of the Pennsylvania Frontiersmen Against the Ohio Indians, in 1782." Historical Magazine, 3d Ser., 1 (April 1873), pp. 207-209.
James, James A. The Life of George Rogers Clark. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1928.
James, James A. "Pittsburgh a Key to the West During the American Revolution." Ohio Archaeological and Historical Quarterly, 22 (January 1913), pp. 64-79.
James, James A. "To What Extent Was George Rogers Clark in Military Control of the Northwest at the Close of the American Revolution?" American Historical Association Annual Report for 1917, pp. 313-329.
Kellogg, Louise Phelps, editor. Frontier Advance on the Upper Ohio, 1778-1779. Madison: Wisconsin Historical Society, 1916.
Kellogg, Louise Phelps, ed. Frontier Retreat on the Upper Ohio, 1779-1781. Madison: Wisconsin Historical Society, 1917.
Kentucky Federal Writers Project, Works Progress Administration. Military History of Kentucky. Frankfort: State Journal, 1939.
Kinnaird, Lawrence. "The Spanish Expedition Against Fort St. Joseph in 1781, A New Interpretation." Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 19 (September 1932), pp. 173-191.
Laub, C. Herbert. "The Problem of Armed Invasion of the Northwest during the American Revolution." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, 42 (January-April 1934), pp. 18-27, 132-144.
Lafferty, Maude Ward. "Destruction of Ruddle's and Martin's Forts in the Revolutionary War." Register of the Kentucky Historical Society, 54 (October 1956), pp. 297-338.
Lenoir, William. "Revolutionary Diary of William Lenoir." Edited by J. D. de Roulhac Hamilton. Journal of Southern History, 6 (May 1940), pp. 247-259.
Little, Mrs. William S. "The Massacre of Cherry Valley." Publication Fund Series, Rochester Historical Society, 6 (1927), pp. 99-128.
Lydekker, John Wolfe. The Faithful Mohawks. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1938.
McAdams, Donald R. "The Sullivan Expedition: Success or Failure?" New-York Historical Society Quarterly, 54 (January 1970), pp. 53-81.
McDermott, John F. "The Battle of St. Louis, 25 May 1780." Missouri Historical Society Bulletin, 36 (April 1980), pp. 131-151.
Mancall, Peter C. "The Revolutionary War and the Indians of the Upper Susquehanna Valley." American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 12 (1988), pp. 39-57.
Mandell, Daniel. "'To Live More Like My Christian English Neighbors': Natick Indians in the Eighteenth Century." William and Mary Quarterly, 3d Ser., 48 (October 1991), pp. 552-579.
Massay, Glenn F. "Fort Henry in the American Revolution." West Virginia History, 24 (April 1963), pp. 248-257.
Murray, Louise W., editor. Order Book of Fort Sullivan and Extracts from Journals of Soldiers in Gen. Sullivan's Army Relating to Fort Sullivan at Tioga Point, Pennsylvania, 1779. Tioga Point: Daughters of the American Revolution, Tioga Chapter, 1903.
Myers, Wilbur A., editor. Book of the Sesquicentennial Celebration of the Battle of Wyoming, July 1st-4th, 1928. Wilkes-Barre: Smith-Bennett Corp., 1928.
Nasatir, A. P. "The Anglo-Spanish Frontier in the Illinois Country during the American Revolution." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, 21 (October 1928), pp. 291-358.
New York Division of Archives and History. The Sullivan-Clinton Campaign in 1779. Chronology and Selected Documents. Albany: University of the State of New York, 1929.
Norona, Delf. "A Forgotten Account of the Sieges of Fort Henry." West Virginia History, 8 (April 1947), pp. 305-314.
Norton, A. T. History of Sullivan's Campaign Against the Iroquois. Lima, N.Y.: Privately printed, 1879.
Notestein, Wallace. "The Western Indians in the Revolution." Ohio Archaeological and Historical Quarterly, 16 (July 1907), pp. 269-291.
O'Donnell, James H., III. Southern Indians in the American Revolution. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1972.
Pastore, Ralph T. "Congress and the Six Nations, 1775-1778." Niagara Frontier, 20 (Winter 1973), pp. 80-95.
Patterson, D. Williams. "Mrs. Skinner and the Massacre at Wyoming." New England Historical and Genealogical Register, 14 (July 1860), pp. 265-266.
Patterson, John Gerald. "Ebenezer Zane, Frontiersman." West Virginia History, 12 (October 1950), pp. 5-45.
Quaife, M. M. "The Ohio Campaign of 1782." Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 17 (March 1931), pp. 515-529.
Rankin, Hugh F. George Rogers Clark and The Winning of the West. Richmond: Virginia Independence Bicentennial Commission, 1976.
Rockwell, E. F., editor. "Parallel and Combined Expeditions Against the Cherokee Indians in South and North Carolina in 1776." Historical Magazine, 2d Ser., 2 (October 1867), pp. 212-220.
Rogers, William. The Journals of a Brigade Chaplain in the Campaign of 1779 against the Six Nations, under the Command of Major General John Sullivan. Providence: S. S. Rider, 1879.
Roof, Garret L. Colonel John Brown, His Services in the Revolutionary War, Battle of Stone Arabia. Utica: Ellis H. Roberts, 1884.
Ronda, Jeanne, and James P. Ronda. "'As They Were Faithful': Chief Hendrick Aupaumut and the Struggle for Stockbridge Survival, 1757-1830." American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 3 (#3, 1979), pp. 43-55.
Rosenthal, Gustavus, alias George Rose. "Journal of a Volunteer Expedition to Sandusky, From May 24 to June 13, 1782." Edited by Baron George Pilar von Pilchau. Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 18 (1894), pp. 130-157, 293-328.
Rossie, Jonathan G. "The Northern Indian Department and The American Revolution." Niagara Frontier, 20 (Autumn 1973), pp. 52-65.
Rue, Alice Cope. "Fort McIntosh, 1778-1788." Master's Thesis, University of Pittsburgh, 1929.
Russell, E. L. "The Lost Story of the Brodhead Expedition." Quarterly Journal of the New York State Historical Association, 11 (July 1930), pp. 252-263.
Schaaf, Gregory L. "The Morgan Papers: The Impact of George Morgan and George Washington in Formulating Indian Policies at the Outbreak of the American Revolution in 1776." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara, 1984.
Sheehan, Bernard W. "'The Famous Hair Buyer General': Henry Hamilton, George
Rogers Clark, and the American Indian." Indiana Magazine of History, 79 (March 1983), pp. 1-28.
Shimmell, Lewis S. Border Warfare in Pennsylvania During the Revolution. Harrisburg: R. L. Myers & Co., 1901.
Smoyer, Stanley C. "Indians as Allies in the Intercolonial Wars." New York History, 17 (October 1936), pp. 411-422.
Snyder, Charles Fisher. "A Forgotten Frontier Fort: The Lower Fort in Penn's Valley." Northumberland County Historical Society Proceedings, 12 (1942), pp. 27-34.
Sosin, Jack M. The Revolutionary Frontier 1763-1783. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967.
Sosin, Jack M. "The Use of Indians in the War of the American Revolution: A Re-assessment of Responsibility." Canadian Historical Review, 46 (June 1965), pp. 101-121.
Steese, C. Marlyn. "The Attack on French Jacob's Mill, and Captain George Overmeyer's Company of Rangers." Northumberland County Historical Society Proceedings, 11 (1939), pp. 137-146.
Stevens, Paul L. "His Majesty's 'Savage' Allies: British Policy and the Northern Indians during the Revolutionary War--The Carleton Years, 1774-1778." Ph.D. Dissertation, State University of New York at Buffalo, 1984.
Stevens, Paul L. "'To Invade The Frontiers of Kentucky?' The Indian Diplomacy of Philippe de Rocheblave, Britain's Acting Commandant at Kaskaskia, 1776-1778." Filson Club History Quarterly, 64 (April 1990), pp. 205-246.
Stevens, Paul L. "Wabasha Visits Governor Carlton, 1776: New Light on a Legendary Episode of Dakota-British Diplomacy on the Great Lakes Frontier." Michigan Historical Review, 16 (Spring 1990), pp. 21-48.
Stone, Rufus B. "Brodhead's Raid on the Senecas: The Story of a Little Known Expedition in 1779 From Fort Pitt to Destroy the Indian Villages on the Upper Allegheny." Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine, 7 (April 1924), pp. 88-101.
Stone, William L. Life of Joseph Brandt--Thayendanega, including the Indian Wars of the American Revolution. 2 vols. New York: Alexander V. Blake, 1838.
Stone, William L. Border Wars of the American Revolution. 2 vols. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1845.
Stryker, William S. General Maxwell's Brigade of the New Jersey Continental Line in the Expedition Against the Indians, in the Year 1779. Trenton: W. S. Sharp Printing Co., 1885.
Summers, Lewis Preston. History of Southwest Virginia, 1746-1786, Washington County, 1777-1870. Richmond: J. L. Hill Printing Co., 1903.
Sutton, Robert M. "George Rogers Clark and the Campaign in the West: The Five Major Documents." Indiana Magazine of History, 76 (December 1980), pp. 334-345.
Swain, D. L. "Historical Sketch of the Indian War of 1776." Historical Magazine, 2d Ser., 2 (November 1867), pp. 273-275.
Thompson, David G. "Thomas Bentley and the American Revolution in Illinois." Illinois Historical Journal, 83 (Spring 1989), pp. 2-12.
Thwaites, Reuben Gold, and Louise Phelps Kellogg, eds. The Revolution on the Upper Ohio, 1775-1777. Madison: Wisconsin Historical Society, 1908.
Thwaites, Reuben Gold, and Louise Phelps Kellogg, eds. Frontier Defense on the Upper Ohio, 1777-1778. Madison: Wisconsin Historical Society, 1912.
Vivian, James F., and Jean H. Vivian. "Congressional Indian Policy During the War for Independence: The Northern Department." Maryland Historical Magazine, 63 (September 1968), pp. 241-274.
Waller, George M. "George Rogers Clark and the American Revolution in the West." Indiana Magazine of History, 72 (March 1976), pp. 1-20.
Williams, Edward G. Fort Pitt and the Revolution on the Western Frontier. Pittsburgh: Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania, 1978. [Originally printed in Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine, 59 (1976), pp. 1-37, 129-152, 251-287, - .]
Williams, Edward G, ed. "A Revolutionary Journal and Orderly Book of General Lachlan McIntosh's Expedition, 1778." Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine, 43 (1960), pp. 1-17, 157-177, 267-288.
Williams, Samuel C. "Shelby's Fort." East Tennessee Historical Society Publications, 7 (1935), pp. 28-37.
Williamson, James R. "Westmoreland County, Connecticut: Bloodiest Battle of the Revolution." Connecticut Historical Society Bulletin, 46 (July 1981), pp. 86-96.
Wood, T. Kenneth. "History of Fort Muncy." Northumberland County Historical Society Proceedings, 6 (1934), pp. 216-225.
Woolworth, Nancy L. "Grand Portage in the Revolutionary War." Minnesota History, 44 (Summer 1975), pp. 198-208.