Appendix & Glossary | 18th Century Medicine


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    Edward St. Germain.
    Edward St. Germain

    Edward A. St. Germain created in 1996. He was an avid historian with a keen interest in the Revolutionary War and American culture and society in the 18th century. On this website, he created and collated a huge collection of articles, images, and other media pertaining to the American Revolution. Edward was also a Vietnam veteran, and his investigative skills led to a career as a private detective in later life.



      A List of Simples and of such Medicinal Preparations as ought to be kept in Readiness for private Practice.

      The Method of preparing and compounding such Medicines as are recommended in the former Part of the Book, with the Addition of several others of a similar Nature.

      Remarks on the Doses, Uses, and Manner of applying the different Preparations.

      Medicamentorum varietas ignorantia filia est. BACON.


      IGNORANCE and superstition have attributed extraordinary medical virtues to almost every production of nature. That such virtues were often imaginary, time and experience have sufficiently shewn. Physicians, however, from a veneration for antiquity, still retain in their lists of medicine many things which owe their reputation entirely to the superstition and credulity of our ancestors

      THE instruments of medicine will always be multiplied, in proportion to men’s ignorance of the nature and cause of diseases: when these are sufficiently understood, the method of cure will be simple and obvious.

      IGNORANCE of the real nature and permanent properties of those substances employed in the cure of diseases, is another reason why they have been so greatly multiplied. Physicians thought they could effect by a number of ingredients, what could not be done by any one of them. Hence arose those amazing farragos which have so long disgraced the medical art, and which were esteemed powerful in proportion to the number of simples that entered their composition.

      THE great variety of form into which almost every article of medicine has been manufactured, affords another proof of the imperfection of the medical art. A drug which is perhaps most efficacious in the simplest form in which it can be administered, has been nevertheless served up in to many different shapes, that one would be induced to think the whole art of physic lay in exhibiting medicine under as many various forms as possible.

      DIFFERENT forms of medicine, no doubt, have their use; but they ought never to be wantonly increased. They are by no means so necessary as is generally imagined. A few grains of powdered rhubarb, jalap, or, ipecacuanha, will actually perform all that can be done by the different preparations of these roots, and may also be exhibited in as safe and agreeable a manner. The same observation holds with regard to the Peruvian bark, and many other simples of which the preparations are very numerous.

      MULTIPLYING the ingredients of a medicine, not only renders it more expensive, but also less certain, both in its dose and operation. Nor is this all. The compound, when kept, is apt to spoil, or acquire qualities of a different nature. When a medicine is rendered more safe, efficacious, or agreeable; by the addition of another, they ought, no doubt, to be joined; in all other cases, they are better kept asunder. The combination of medicines embarrasses the physician, and retards the progress of medical knowledge. It is impossible to ascertain the precise effect of any one medicine, as long as it is combined with others, either of a similar or dissimilar nature.

      IN the exhibition of medicine, regard should not only be had to simplicity, but likewise to elegance. Patients seldom reap much benefit from things that are highly disagreeable to their senses. To taste or smell like a drug, is become a proverb; and to say truth, there is too much ground for it. Indeed no art can take away the disagreeable taste and flavour of some drugs, without entirely destroying their efficacy: it is possible, however, to render many medicines less disgustful, and others even agreeable; an object highly deserving the attention of all who administer medicine.

      THE design of the following pages is to exhibit such a list of drugs and medicines as may be necessary for private practice. They are considerably more numerous indeed than those recommended in the former part of the book, but are still greatly within the number contained in the most reformed dispensatories. The same medicine is seldom exhibited under different forms; and where different medicines answer nearly the same intention, there is commonly no more than one of them retained. Multiplying forms of medicine for the same intention tends rather to bewilder than assist the young practitioner, and the experienced physician can never be at a loss to vary his prescriptions as occasion requires.

      THE chemical and other difficult preparations are for the most part omitted. All of them that are used by any private practitioner are not worth preparing. He will buy them much cheaper than he can make them. Great care however is necessary to obtain them genuine. They are often adulterated, and ought never to be purchased unless from persons of known veracity. Such of them as are in common use are inserted in the list of drugs and medicines. Their proper doses, and manner of application, are mentioned in the practical part of the Book, wherever they are prescribed.

      SUCH articles of medicine as are to be found in the house or garden of almost every peasant, as barley, eggs, onions, &c. are likewise, for the most part, omitted. It is needless to swell a list of medicines with such things as can be obtained whenever they are wanted, and which spoil by being kept.

      THE preparations made and sold by millers and confectioners are also generally left out. These people, by operating upon a larger plan, generally make things better, while it is in their power to afford them much cheaper than they can be prepared by any private hand.

      THE quantity ordered of every medicine is as small as could well be prepared, both to prevent unnecessary expence, and that the medicine might not spoil by keeping. almost every medicine suffers by being kept, and should be used as soon after it has been prepared as possible. Even simple drugs are apt to spoil, and should therefore be laid in in small quantities; they either rot, are consumed by insects, or evaporate so as to lose their peculiar taste or flavour, and often become quite insignificant.

      IN the preparation of medicines, I have generally followed the most improved dispensatories; but have taken the liberty to differ from them, wherever my own observations, or those of other practical writers, on whose judgment I could depend, suggested an improvement.

      IN several compositions, the ingredient on which the efficacy of the medicine principally depends is increased, while the auxiliaries, which are generally ordered in such trifling quantities, as to be of no importance, are left out, or only such of them retained as are necessary to give the medicine a proper consistence, or the like.

      THE colouring ingredients are likewise for the most part omitted. They increase the bulk and price of the medicine; without adding any thing to its value. It would be well if they were never used at all. Medicines are often adulterated for the sake of a colour. Acrid and even poisonous substances are, for this purpose, sometimes introduced into those medicines which ought to be most bland and emollient. Ointment of elder, for example, is often mixed with verdegrise to give it a fine green colour, which entirely frustrates the intention of that mild ointment. Those who wish to obtain genuine medicines should pay no regard to their colour.

      SOME regard is likewise paid to expence. Such ingredients as greatly increase the price of any composition, without adding considerably to its virtue, are generally either omitted, or somewhat less expensive substituted in their place. Medicines are by no means powerful in proportion to their price. The cheapest are often the best; besides, they are the least apt to be adulterated, and are always most readily obtained.

      WITH regard to the method of compounding medicines, I have generally followed that which seemed to be the most simple and natural, mentioning the different steps of the process in the same order in which they ought to be taken, without paying an implicit regard to the method of other dispensatories.

      FOR many of the remarks concerning the preparation, &c. of medicines, I have been obliged to the author of the New Dispensatory. The other observations are either such as have occurred to myself in practice, or have been suggested in the course of reading, by authors whose names I am not able distinctly to recollect.

      I HAVE followed the alphabetical order, both with regard to the simples and preparations. A more scientific method would have been agreeable to some persons, but less useful to the generality of readers. The different classes of medicine have no great dependance upon one another; and, where they have, it is hard to say which should stand first or last; no doubt the simple preparations ought to precede the more compound. But all the advantages arising from this method of arrangement do not appear equal to that single one, of being able, on the first opening of the book, to find out any article, which, by the alphabetical order, is rendered quite easy.

      THE dose of every medicine is mentioned wherever it appeared necessary. When this is omitted, it is to be understood that the medicine may be used at discretion. The dose mentioned is always for an adult, unless when the contrary is expressed. It is not an easy matter to proportion the doses of medicine exactly to the different ages, constitutions, &c. of patients; but, happily for mankind, mathematical exactness here is by no means necessary.

      SEVERAL attempts have been made to ascertain the proportional doses for the different ages and constitutions of patients; but, after all that can be said upon this subject, a great deal must be left to the judgement and skill of the person who administers the medicine. The following general proportions may be observed; but they are by no means intended for exact rules. A patient betwixt twenty and fourteen may take two thirds of the dose ordered for an adult; from fourteen to nine, one-half; from nine to six, one-third; from six to four, one-fourth; from four to two, one-sixth; from two to one, a tenth; and below one, a twelfth.

      DISPENSATORIES are usually written in the Latin language. Even authors who write in English, generally give their prescriptions in Latin; and some of them shew so great an attachment to that language, as first to write their recipes in it, and afterwards translate them; while others, to compromise the matter, write the one half in Latin and the other in English. What peculiar charm a medical prescription, when written in Latin, may have, I shall not pretend to say; but have ventured to make use of the plainest English I could, and hope my prescriptions will succeed no worse for it.

      N. B. THE Apothecary’s weights, and the English wine measures, are used throughout the whole book, the different denominations of which will appear from the following Table:

      A pound contains twelve ounces.
      An ounce contains eight drachms.
      A drachm contains three scruples.
      A scruple contains twenty grains.

      A gallon contains eight pints.
      A pint contains sixteen ounces.
      An ounce contains eight drachms.
      A spoonful is the measure of half an ounce.

      A list of ingredients and medical preparations to be kept in readiness

      • Agaric
      • Alum
      • Antimony, crude
      • Antimony, cinnabar of
      • Antimony, sulphur of
      • Balsam of Capivi
      • Balsam of Peru
      • Balsam of Tolu
      • Bark, cascarilla
      • Bark, cinnamon
      • Bark, Mezerion
      • Bark, Peruvian
      • Bark, Winter’s, or canella alba
      • Borax
      • Calamine stone, levigated
      • Castor, Russian
      • Caustic, common
      • Caustic, Lunar
      • Earth, Fuller’s
      • Earth, Japan
      • Earth, Armenian bole
      • Earth, French bole
      • Extracts of gentian
      • Extracts of guaiacum
      • Extracts of hellebore, black
      • Extracts of hemlock
      • Extracts of jalap
      • Extracts of liquorice
      • Extracts Of Peruvian bark
      • Extracts of poppies
      • Extracts of wormwood
      • Flowers of camomile
      • Flowers of colt’s foot
      • Flowers of elder
      • Flowers of rosemary
      • Flowers of damask roses
      • Flowers of red roses
      • Fruits, almonds
      • Fruits, bitter apple
      • Fruits, cassia fistularis
      • Fruits, Curassao oranges of cinnamon
      • Fruits, figs, dried
      • Fruits, French prunes
      • Fruits, Jamaica -pepper
      • Fruits, Juniper berries
      • Fruits, nutmegs
      • Fruits, tamarinds
      • Gums, aloes
      • Gums, ammoniac, in tears
      • Gums, arabic
      • Gums, asafoetida
      • Gums, camphor
      • Gums, galbanum
      • Gums, gamboge
      • Gums, guaiacum
      • Gums, kino
      • Gums, myrrh
      • Gums, opium
      • Hartshorn, calcined
      • Hartshorn, shavings of
      • Herbs, lesser centaury
      • Herbs, peppermint
      • Herbs, spearmint
      • Herbs, penny-royal
      • Herbs, savin
      • Herbs, trefoil
      • Herbs, uva ursi
      • Herbs, wormwood
      • Lead, Litharge
      • Lead, white
      • Lead, sugar of
      • Lemon-peel
      • Mace
      • Magnesia alba
      • Manna
      • Mercury, crude
      • Mercury, AEthiop’s mineral
      • Mercury, calomel
      • Mercury, corrosive sublimate
      • Mercury, red precipitate
      • Mercury, white precipitate
      • Musk
      • Oil, essential, of amber
      • Oil, essential, of anise
      • Oil, essential, of cinnamon
      • Oil, essential, of juniper
      • Oil, essential, of lemon-peel
      • Oil, essential, of peppermint
      • Oil, expressed, of almonds
      • Oil, expressed, of linseed
      • Oil of olives, or Florence Oil
      • Oil of palms
      • Oil of turpentine
      • Orange-peel
      • Oyster shells prepared
      • Poppy-heads
      • Resins, benzoin
      • Resins, flowers of
      • Resins, Burgundy pitch
      • Resins, dragon’s blood
      • Resins, frankincense
      • Resins, liquid storax
      • Resins, white, or rosin
      • Resins, scammony
      • Roots, birthwort
      • Roots, calamus aromaticus
      • Roots, contrayerva
      • Roots, garlic
      • Roots, gentian
      • Roots, ginger
      • Roots, hellebore, black, white
      • Roots, jalap
      • Roots, ipecacuanha
      • Roots, lily, white Sulphur vivum
      • Roots, liquorice
      • Roots, marshmallow
      • Roots, mezerion
      • Roots, rhubarb
      • Roots, sarsaparilla
      • Roots, seneka
      • Roots, squills
      • Roots, tormentil
      • Roots, turmeric
      • Roots, Virginian snake
      • Roots, wild valerian
      • Roots, zedoary
      • Saffron
      • Sal ammoniac, crude
      • Sal ammoniac, Volatile
      • Salt, Epsom
      • Salt, of Glauber
      • Salt, of hartshorn
      • Salt, nitre, purified, or prunel
      • Salt, Polychrest
      • Salt, Rochel
      • Salt, of tartar
      • Seeds, anise
      • Seeds, carraway
      • Seeds, cardamom
      • Seeds, coriander
      • Seeds, cummin
      • Seeds, mustard
      • Seeds, sweet fennel
      • Seeds, wild carrot
      • Senna
      • Spanish flies
      • Sperma ceti
      • Spirits, aethereal, or aether
      • Spirits, of hartshorn
      • Spirits, of lavender, compound
      • Spirits, of nitre
      • Spirits, of nitre dulcified
      • Spirits, of sal ammoniac
      • Spirits, of sea salt
      • Spirits, of vinegar
      • Spirits, of vitriol
      • Spirits, of wine rectified
      • Spirits, volatile aromatic
      • Steel, filings of
      • Steel, rust of, prepared
      • Steel, soluble salt of
      • Sulphur vivum
      • Sulphur vivum, balsam of
      • Sulphur vivum, flowers of
      • Tar
      • Tar, Barbadoes
      • Tartar, cream of
      • Tartar, emetic
      • Tartar, soluble
      • Tartar, vitriolated
      • Tin prepared
      • Tutty, levigated
      • Turpentine, Venice
      • Verdegrise
      • Vitriol, green
      • Vitriol, blue
      • Vitriol, White
      • Wax, white
      • Wax, yellow
      • Woods, guaiacum
      • Woods, logwood
      • Woods, sassafras
      • Woods, saunders, red
      • Zinc, flowers of


      Medicinal recipes


      THE subject of this section is not the natural balsams, but certain compositions, which, from their being supposed to possess balsamic qualities, generally go by that name.

      This class of medicines was formerly very numerous, and held in great esteem: modern practice, however, has justly reduced it to a very narrow compass.

      Anodyne Balsam

      Take of white Spanish soap, one ounce; opium, unprepared, two drachms; rectified spirit of wine, nine ounces. Digest them together in a gentle heat for three days; then strain off the liquor, and add to it three drachms of camphor.

      This balsam, as its title expresses, is intended to ease pain. It is of service in violent strains and rheumatic complaints, when not attended with inflammation. It must be rubbed with a warm hand on the part affected; or a linen rag moistened with it may be applied to the part, and renewed every third or fourth hour, till the pain abates. If the opium is left out, this will be japonacious balsam.

      Locatelli’s Balsam

      Take of olive oil, one pint; Strasburg turpentine and yellow wax, of each half a pound; red saunders, six drachms. Melt the wax with some part of the oil over a gentle fire; then adding the remaining part of the oil and the turpentine; afterwards mix in the saunders, previously reduced to a powder, and keep them stirring together till the balsam is cold.

      This balsam is recommended in erosions of the intestines, the dysentery, haemorrhages, internal bruises, and in some complaints of the breast. Outwardly it is used for healing and cleansing wounds and ulcers. The dose, when taken internally, is from two scruples to two drachms.

      The vulnerary Balsam

      Take of benzoin, powdered, three ounces; balsam of Peru, two ounces; hepatic aloes, in powder, half an ounce; rectified spirit of wine, two pints. Digest them in a gentle heat for three days, and then strain the balsam.

      This balsam, or rather tincture, is applied externally to heal recent wounds and bruises. It is likewise employed internally to remove coughs, asthmas, and other complaints of the breast. It is said to ease the colic, cleanse the kidnies, and to heal internal ulcers, &c.

      The dose is from twenty to sixty drops.

      This, though a medicine of some value, does not deserve the extravagant encomiums which have been bestowed on it. It has been celebrated under the different names of The Commander’s Balsam, Persian Balsam, Balsam of Berne, Wade’s Balsam, Friar’s Balsam, Jesuit’s Drops, Turlington’s Drops, &c.


      AS boluses are intended for immediate use, volatile salts and other ingredients improper for being kept are admitted into their composition. They are generally composed of powders, with a proper quantity of syrup, conserve, or mucilage. The lighter powders are commonly made up with syrup, and the more ponderous, as mercury, &c. with conserve; but those of the lighter kind would be more conveniently made up with mucilage, as it increases their bulk less than the other additions, and likewise occasions the medicine to pass down more easily.

      Astringent Bolus

      Take of alum, in powder, fifteen grains; gum kino, five grains; syrup, a sufficient quantity to make a bolus.

      In an excessive flow of the menses, and other violent discharges of blood, proceeding from relaxation, this bolus may be given every four or five hours, till the discharge abates.

      Diaphoretic Bolus

      Take of gum guaiacum, in powder, ten grains; flowers of sulphur and cream of tartar, of each one scruple; simple syrup, a sufficient quantity.

      In rheumatic complaints, and disorders of the skin, this bolus may be taken twice a day. lt will also be of service in the inflammatory quinsey.

      Mercurial Bolus

      Take of calomel, six grains; conserve of roses, half a drachm. Make a bolus.

      Where mercury is necessary, this bolus may be taken twice or thrice a week. It may be taken over night; and if it does not operate, a few grains of jalap will be proper next day to carry it off.

      Bolus of Rhubarb and Mercury

      Take of the best rhubarb, in powder, from a scruple to half a drachm; of calomel, from four to six grains; simple syrup, a sufficient quantity to make a bolus.

      This is a proper purge in hypochondriac constitutions; but its principal intention is to expel worms. Where a stronger purge is necessary, jalap may be used instead of the rhubarb.

      Pectoral Bolus

      Take of sperma ceti, a scruple; gum ammoniac, ten grains; salt of hartshorn, six grains; simple syrup, as much as will make them into a bolus.

      This bolus is given in colds and coughs of long standing, asthmas, and beginning consumptions of the lungs. It is generally proper to bleed the patient before he begins to use it.

      Purging Bolus

      Take of jalap in powder, a scruple; cream of tartar, two scruples. Let them be rubbed together, and formed into a bolus, with simple syrup.

      Where a mild purge is wanted, this will answer the purpose very well. If a stronger dose is necessary, the jalap may be increased to half a drachm or upwards.


      CATAPLASMS possess few or no virtues superior to a poultice, which may be so made, as, in most cases, to supply their place. They are chiefly intended either to act as discutients, or to promote suppuration; and as they may be of service in some cases, we shall give a specimen of each kind.

      Discutient Cataplasm

      Take of barley-meal, six ounces; fresh hemlock leaves bruised, two ounces; vinegar, a sufficient quantity. Boil the meal and hemlock in the vinegar for a little, and then add two drachms of the sugar of lead.

      Ripening Cataplasm

      Take of white lily root, four ounces; fat figs and raw onions, bruised, of each one ounce; yellow basilicum ointment, two ounces; gum galbanum, half an ounce; linseed meal, as much as necessary. Boil the roots along with the figs in a sufficient quantity of water; then bruise and add to them the other ingredients, so as to form the whole into a soft cataplasm. The galbanum malt be previously dissolved with the yolk of an egg.

      Where it is necessary to promote suppuration, this cataplasm may be used by those who chuse to be at the trouble and expence of making it. For my part, l have never found any application more proper for this purpose than a poultice of bread and milk, with a sufficient quantity of either boiled or raw onion in it, and softened with oil or fresh butter.


      Sinapisms are employed to recall the blood and spirits to a weak part, as in the palsy and atrophy. They are also of service in deep seated pains, as the sciatica, &c. When the gout seizes the head or the stomach, they are applied to the feet to bring the disorder to these parts. They are likewise applied to the patient’s soles in the low state of fevers. They should not be suffered to lie on, however, till they have raised blisters, but till the parts become red, and will continue so when pressed with the finger.

      The sinapism is only a poultice made with vinegar instead of milk, and rendered warm and stimulating by the addition of mustard, horse-radish, or garlic.

      The common sinapism is made by taking crumb of bread and mustard-seed in powder, of each equal quantities; strong vinegar, as much as is sufficient, and mixing them so as to make a poultice.

      When sinapisms of a more stimulating nature are wanted, a little bruised garlic may be added to the above.


      THIS class of medicines is of more importance than is generally imagined. Clysters serve, not only to evacuate the contents of the belly, but also to convey very active medicines into the system. Opium, for example, may be administered in this way when it will not sit upon the stomach, and also in larger doses than at any time it can be taken by the mouth. The Peruvian bark may likewise be, with good effect, administered in form of clyster to persons who cannot take it by the mouth.

      A simple clyster can seldom do hurt, and there are many cases where it may do much good. A clyster even of warm water, by serving as a fomentation to the parts, may be of considerable service in an inflammation of the bladder, and the lower intestines, &c.

      Some substances, As the smoke of tobacco, may be thrown into the bowels in this way, which cannot, by any other means whatever. This may be easily effected by means of a pair of hand-bellows, with an apparatus fitted to them for that purpose.

      Nor is the use of clysters confined to medicines. Aliment may also be conveyed in this way. Persons unable to swallow, have been, for a considerable time, supported by clysters.

      Emollient Clyster

      Take of linseed tea and new milk, each six ounces. Mix them.

      If fifty or sixty drops of laudanum be added to this, it will supply the place of the Anodyne Clyster.

      Laxative Clyster

      Take of milk and water, each six ounces; sweet oil or fresh butter, and brown sugar, of each two ounces. Mix them.

      If an ounce of Glauber’s salt, or two table-spoonfuls of common salt be added to this, it will be the Purging Clyster.

      Carminative Clyster

      Take of camomile flowers, an ounce; anise-seeds, half an ounce. Boil in a pint and a half of water to one pint.

      In hysteric and hypochondriac complaints this may be administered instead of the Foetid Clyster, the smell of which is so disagreeable to most patients.

      Oily Clyster

      To four ounces of the infusuion of camomile flowers, add an equal quantity of Florence oil.

      This clyster is beneficial in bringing off the small worms lodged in the lower parts of the alimentary canal. When given to children the quantity must be proportionably lessened.

      Starch Clyster

      Take jelly of starch, four ounces; linseed oil, half an ounce. Liquify the jelly over a gentle fire, and then mix in the oil.

      In the dysentery or bloody flux, this clyster may be administered after every loose stool, to heal the ulcerated intestines and blunt the sharpness of corroding humours. Forty or fifty drops of laudanum may be occasionally added; in which case, it will generally supply the place of the Astringent Clyster.

      Turpentine Clyster

      Take of common decoction, ten ounces; Venice turpentine, dissolved with the yolk of an egg, half an ounce; Florence oil, one ounce. Mix them.

      This diuretic clyster is proper in obstructions of the urinary passages, and in cholicky complaints, proceeding from gravel.

      Vinegar Clyster

      This clyster is made by mixing three ounces of vinegar with five of water-gruel.

      It answers all the purposes of a common clyster, with the peculiar advantage of being proper either in Inflammatory or putrid disorders, especially in the latter.

      We think it unnecessary to give more examples of this class of medicines, as ingredients adapted to any particular intention may be occasionally added to one or other of the above forms.


      EYE-WATERS have been multiplied without number, almost every person pretending to be possessed of some secret preparation for the cure of sore eyes. I have examined many of them, and find that they are pretty much alike, the basis of most of them being either allum, vitriol, or lead. The effects evidently are, to brace and restore the tone of the parts; hence they are principally of service in slight inflammations, and in that relaxed state of the parts which is induced by obstinate ones.

      Camphor is commonly added to these compositions; but as it seldom incorporates properly with the water, it can be of little use. Boles, and other earthy substances, as they do not dissolve in water, are likewise unfit for this purpose.

      Collyrium of Alum

      Take of alum, half a drachm; agitate it well together with the white of one egg.

      This is the Collyrium of Riverius. It is used in inflammation of the eyes, to allay heat, and restrain the flux of humours. It must be spread upon linen, and applied to the eyes; but should not be kept on above three or four hours at a time.

      Vitriolic Collyrium

      Take of white vitriol, half a drachm: rose-water, six ounces. Dissolve the vitriol in the water, and filter the liquor.

      This, though simple, is perhaps equal in virtue to most of the celebrated collyria. It is an useful application in weak, watery, and inflamed eyes. Though the slighter inflammations will generally yield to it, yet in those of a more obstinate nature the assistance of bleeding and blistering will often be necessary,

      When a strong astringent is judged proper, a double or triple quantity of the vitriol may be used. I have seen a solution of four times the strength of the above used with manifest advantage.

      Collyrium of Lead

      Take sugar of lead, and crude sal ammoniac, of each four grains. Dissolve them in eight ounces of common water.

      Forty or fifty drops of laudanum may be occasionally added to this collyrium.

      Those who chuse may substitute instead of this the collyrium of lead recommended by Goulard; which is made by putting twenty-five drops of his Extract of Saturn to eight ounces of water, and adding a tea-spoonful of brandy.

      Indeed, common water and brandy, without any other addition, will in many cases answer very well as a collyrium. An ounce of the latter may be added to five or six ounces of the former; and the eyes, if weak, bathed with it night and morning.


      CONFECTIONS containing above sixty ingredients are still to be found in some of the most reformed dispensatories. As most of their intentions, however, may be more certainly, and as effectually answered by a few glasses of wine or grains of opium, we shall pass over this class of medicines very lightly.

      Japonic Confection

      Take of Japan earth, three ounces; tormentil root, nutmeg, olibanum, of each two ounces; opium dissolved in a sufficient quantity of Lisbon wine, a drachm and a half; simple syrup and conserve of roses, of each fourteen ounces. Mix and make them into an electuary.

      This supplies the place of the Diascordium. The dose of this electuary is from a scruple to a drachm.


      EVERY Apothecary’s shop was formerly so full of these preparations, that it might have passed for a confectioner’s warehouse. They possess very few medicinal properties, and may rather be classed among sweetmeats than medicines. They are sometimes, however, of use, for reducing into boluses or pills some of the more ponderous powders, as the preparations of iron, mercury, and tin.

      Conserves are compositions of fresh vegetables and sugar, beaten together into an uniform mass. In making these preparations, the leaves of vegetables must be freed from their stalks; the flowers from their cups, and the yellow part of orange-peel taken off with a rasp. They are then to be pounded in a marble mortar, with a wooden pestle, into a smooth mass; after which, thrice their weight of fine sugar is commonly added by degrees, and the beating continued till they are uniformally mixed; but the conserve will be better if only twice its weight of sugar be added.

      Those who prepare large quantities of conserve generally reduce the vegetables to a pulp by the means of a mill, and afterwards beat them up with sugar.

      Conserve of Red Roses

      Take a pound of red rose buds, cleared of their heels; beat them well in a mortar, and, adding by degrees two pounds of double refined sugar, in powder, make a conserve.

      After the same manner are prepared the conserves of orange-peel, rosemary flowers, sea- wormwood, of the leaves of wood-sorrel, &c.

      The conserve of roses is one of the most agreeable and useful preparations belonging to this class. A drachm or two of it, dissolved in warm milk, is ordered to be given as a gentle restringent in weakness of the stomach, and likewise in phthisical coughs, and spitting of blood. To have any considerable effects, however, it must be taken in larger quantities.

      Conserve of Sloes

      This may be made by boiling the sloes gently in water, being careful to take them out before they burst: afterwards expressing the juice, and beating it up with three times its weight of fine sugar.

      In relaxations of the uvula and glands of the throat, this makes an excellent gargle, and may be used at discretion.

      Preserves are made by steeping or boiling fresh vegetables first in water, and afterwards in syrup, or a solution of sugar. The subject is either preserved moist in the syrup, or taken out and dried, that the sugar may candy upon it. The last is the most useful method.

      Candied Orange Peel

      Soak Seville orange-peel in several waters, till it loses its bitterness; then boil it in a solution of double refined sugar in water, till it becomes tender and transparent.

      Candied lemon-peel is prepared in the same manner.

      It is needless to add more of these preparations, as they belong rather to the art of the confectioner than that of the apothecary.


      WATER readily extracts the gummy and saline parts of vegetables; and though its action is chiefly confined to these, yet the resinous and oily being intimately blended with the gummy and saline, are in great part taken up along with them. Hence watery decoctions and infusions of vegetables constitute a large, and not unuseful, class of medicines. Although most vegetables yield their virtues to water, as well by infusion as decoction, yet the latter is often necessary, as it saves time, and does in a few minutes what the other would require hours, and sometimes days, to effect.

      The medicines of this class are all intended for immediate use.

      Decoction of Althea

      Take of the roots of marsh-mallows, moderately dried, three ounces; raisins of the sun, one ounce; water, three pints. Boil the ingredients in the water till the one third of it is consumed; afterwards strain the decoction and let it stand for some time to settle. If the roots be thoroughly dried, they must be boiled till one half of the water be consumed.

      In coughs, and sharp defluctions upon the lungs, this decoction may be used for ordinary drink.

      The Common Decoction

      Take of camomile flowers, one ounce; elder flowers, and sweet fennel seeds, of each half an ounce; water, two quarts. Boil them for a little, and then strain the decoction.

      A medicine equally good may be prepared by infusing the ingredients for some hours in boiling water.

      This decoction is chiefly intended as the basis for clysters, to which other ingredients may be occasionally added. It will likewise serve as a common fomentation, spirit of wine or other things being added in such quantity as the case may require.

      Decoction of Logwood

      Boil three ounces of the shavings, or chips, of logwood, in four pints of water, till one half of the liquor is wasted. Two or three ounces of simple cinnamon-water may be added to this decoction.

      In fluxes of the belly, where the stronger astringents are improper, a tea-cupfull of this decoction may be taken with advantage three or four times a day.

      Decoction of the Bark

      Boil an ounce of the Peruvian bark, grossly powdered, in a pint and a half of water to one pint; then strain the decoction. If a tea-spoonful of the weak spirit of vitriol be added to this medicine, it will render it both more agreeable and efficacious.

      Compound Decoction of the Bark

      Take of Peruvian bark and Virginian snake-root, grossly powdered, each three drachms. Boil them in a pint of water to one half. To the strained liquor add an ounce and a half of aromatic water.

      Sir John Pringle recommends this as a proper medicine towards the decline of malignant fevers, when the pulse is low, the voice weak, and the head affected with a stupor but with little delirium.

      The dose is four spoonfuls every fourth or sixth hour.

      Decoction of Sarsaparilla

      Take of fresh sarsaparilla root, sliced and bruised, two ounces; shavings of guaiacum wood, one ounce. Boil over a slow fire, in three quarts of water, to one; adding towards the end, half an ounce of sassafras wood, and three drachms of liquorice. Strain the decoction.

      This may either be employed as an assistant to a course of mercurial alteratives, or taken after the mercury has been used for some time. It strengthens the stomach, and restores flesh and vigour to habits emaciated by the venereal disease. It may also be taken in the rheumatism and cutaneous disorders proceeding from foulness of the blood and juices. For all these intentions it is greatly preferable to the Decoction of Woods.

      This decoction may be taken, from a pint and a half to two quarts in a day.

      The following decoction is said to be similar to that used by Kennedy, in the cure of the venereal disease, and may supply the place of the Lisbon diet drink:

      Take of sarsaparilla, two ounces; liquorice and mezerion root, of each half an ounce; shavings of guaiacum and sassafras wood, of each one ounce; crude antimony, powdered, an ounce and a half. Infuse these ingredients in eight pints of boiling water for twenty-four hours, then boil them till one-half of the water is consumed; afterwards strain the decoction.

      This decoction may be used in the same manner as the preceding.

      Decoction of Seneka

      Take of seneka rattle-snake root, one ounce; water, a pint and a half. Boil to one pint, and strain.

      This decoction is recommended in the pleurisy, dropsy, rheumatism, and some obstinate disorders of the skin. The dose is two ounces, three or four times a day, or oftener, if the stomach will bear it.

      White Decoction

      Take of the purest chalk, in powder, two ounces; gum arabic half an ounce; water, three pints. Boil to one quart, and strain the decoction.

      This is a proper drink in acute diseases, attended with, or inclining to, a looseness, and where acidities abound in the stomach or bowels. It is peculiarly proper for children when afflicted with sourness of the stomach, and for persons who are subject to the heartburn. It may be sweetened with sugar, as it is used, and two or three ounces of simple cinnamon-water added to it.

      An ounce of powdered chalk, mixed with two pints of water, will occasionally supply the place of this decoction, and also of the chalk julep.


      THIS is a proper form for exhibiting such medicines as are intended to operate immediately, and which do not need to be frequently repeated; as purges, vomits, and a few others, which are to be taken at one dose. Where a medicine requires to be used for any length of time, it is better to make up a larger quantity of it at once, which saves both trouble and expence.

      Anodyne Draught

      Take of liquid laudanum, twenty-five drops; simple cinnamon-water, an ounce; common syrup, two drachms. Mix them.

      In excessive pain, where bleeding is not necessary, and in great restlessness, this composing draught may be taken and repeated occasionally.

      Diuretic Draught

      Take of the diuretic salt two scruples; syrup of poppies, two drachms; simple cinnamon-water and common-water, of each an ounce.

      This draught is of service in an obstruction or deficiency of urine.

      Purging Draughts

      Take of manna, an ounce; soluble tartar, or Rochel salt, from three to four drachms. Dissolve in three ounces of boiling water; to which add Jamaica pepper-water, half an ounce.

      As manna will not sometimes sit upon the stomach, an ounce or ten drachms of the bitter purging salts, dissolved in four ounces of water, may be taken instead of the above.

      Those who cannot take salts may use the following draught.

      Take of jalap in powder, a scruple; common water an ounce; aromatic tincture, six drachms. Rub the jalap with twice its weight of sugar, and add to it the other ingredients.

      Sweating Draught

      Take spirit of Minererus, two ounces; salt of hartshorn, five grains; simple cinnamon-water, and syrup of poppies, of each half an ounce. Make them into a draught.

      In recent colds and rheumatic complaints, this draught is of service. To promote its effects, however, the patient ought to drink freely of warm water-gruel, or of some other weak diluting liquor.

      Vomiting Draughts

      Take of ipecacuanha, in powder, a scruple; water, an ounce; simple syrup, a drachm. Mix them.

      Persons who require a stronger vomit may add to the above half a grain, or a grain, of emetic tartar.

      Those who do not chuse the powder, may take ten drachms of the ipecacuanha wine; or half an ounce of the wine, and an equal quantity of the syrup of squills.


      ELECTUARIES are generally composed of the lighter powders, mixed with syrup, honey, conserve, or mucilage, into such a consistence that the powders may neither separate by keeping, nor the mass prove too stiff for swallowing. They receive chiefly the milder alterative medicines, and such as are not ungrateful to the palate.

      Astringent electuaries, and such as have pulps of fruit in them, should be prepared only in small quantities; as astringent medicines lose their virtues by being kept in this form, and the pulps of fruits are apt to ferment.

      For the extraction of pulps it will be necessary to boil unripe fruits, and ripe ones if they are dried, in a small quantity of water till they become soft. The pulp is then to be pressed out through a strong hair sieve, or thin cloth, and afterwards boiled to a due consistence, in an earthen vessel, over a gentle fire, taking care to prevent the matter from burning by continually stirring it. The pulps of fruits that are both ripe and fresh may be pressed out without any previous boiling.

      Lenitive Electuary

      Take of senna, in fine powder, eight ounces; coriander seed, also in powder, four ounces; pulp of tamarinds and of French prunes, each a pound. Mix the pulps and powders together, and with a sufficient quantity of simple syrup, reduce the whole into an electuary.

      A tea-spoonful of this electuary, taken two or three times a day, generally proves an agreeable laxative. It likewise serves as a convenient vehicle for exhibiting more active medicines, as jalaps, scammony, and such like.

      This may supply the place of the electuary of Cassia.

      Electuary for the Dysentery

      Take of the Japonic confection, two ounces; Locatelli’s basam, one ounce; rhubarb in powder, half an ounce; syrup of marshmallows, enough to make an electuary.

      It is often dangerous in dysenteries to give opiates and astringents, without interposing purgatives. The purgative is here joined with these ingredients, which renders this a very safe and useful medicine for the purposes expressed in the title.

      About the bulk of a nutmeg should be taken twice or thrice a day, as the symptoms and constitution may require.

      Electuary for the Epilepsy

      Take of Peruvian bark, in powder, an ounce; of powdered tin, and wild valerian root, each half an ounce; simple syrup, enough to make an electuary.

      Dr. Mead directs a drachm of an electuary similar to this to be taken, evening and morning, in the epilepsy, for the space of three months. It will be proper, however, to discontinue the use of it for a few days every now and then. I have added the powdered tin, because the epilepsy often proceeds from worms.

      Electuary for the Gonorrhoea

      Take of lenitive electuary, three ounces; jalap and rhubarb, in powder, of each two drachms; nitre, half an ounce; simple syrup, enough to make an electuary.

      During the inflammation and tension of the urinary passages, which accompany a virulent gonorrhoea, this cooling laxative may be used with advantage.

      The dose is a drachm, or about the bulk of a nutmeg two or three times a day; more or less, as may be necessary to keep the body gently open.

      An electuary made of cream of tartar and simple syrup will occasionally supply the place of this.

      After the inflammation is gone off, the following electuary may used:

      Take of lenitive electuary, two ounces; balsam of capivi, one ounce; gum guaiacum and rhubarb, in powder, of each two drachms; simple syrup, enough to make an electuary. The dose is the same as of the preceding.

      Electuary of the Bark

      Take of Peruvian bark, in powder, three ounces; cascarilla, half an ounce; syrup of ginger, enough to make an electuary.

      In the cure of obstinate intermitting fevers, the bark is assisted by the cascarilla. In hectic habits, however, it will be better to leave out the cascarilla, and put three drachms of crude sal ammoniac in its stead.

      Electuary for the Piles

      Take flowers of sulphur, one ounce; cream of tartar, half an ounce; treacle, a sufficient quantity to form an electuary.

      A tea-spoonful of this may be taken three or four times a day.

      Electuary for the Palsy

      Take of powdered mustard-seed, and conserve of roses, each an ounce; syrup of ginger, enough to make an electuary.

      A tea-spoonful of this may be taken three or four times a day.

      Electuary for the Rheumatism

      Take of conserve of roses, two ounces; cinnabar of antimony, levigated, an ounce and a half; gum guaiacum, in powder, an ounce; syrup of ginger, a sufficient quantity to make an electuary.

      In obstinate rheumatisms, which are not accompanied with a fever, a tea-spoonful of this electuary may be taken twice a day with considerable advantage.


      EMULSIONS, beside their use as medicines, are also proper vehicles for certain substances, which could not otherwise be conveniently taken in a liquid form. Thus camphor, triturated with almonds, readily unites with water into an emulsion. Pure oils, balsams, resins, and other similar substances, are likewise rendered miscible with water by the intervention of mucilages.

      Common Emulsion

      Take of sweet almonds, an ounce; bitter almonds, a drachm; water, two pints.

      Let the almonds be blanched, and beat up in a marble mortar; adding the water by little and little, so as to make an emulsion; afterwards let it be strained.

      Arabic Emulsion

      This is made in the same manner as the above, adding to the almonds, while beating, two ounces and a half of the mucilage of gum arabic.

      Where soft cooling liquors are necessary, these emulsions may be used as ordinary drink.

      Camphorated Emulsion

      Take of Camphor, half a drachm; sweet almonds, half a dozen; white sugar, half an ounce; mint water, eight ounces. Grind the camphor and almonds well together in a stone mortar, and add by degrees the mint water; then strain the liquor, and dissolve in it the sugar.

      In fevers, and other disorders which require the use of camphor, a table-spoonful of this emulsion may be taken every two or three hours.

      Emulsion of Gum Ammoniac

      Take of gum ammoniac, two drachms; water, eight ounces. Grind the gum with the water poured upon it by little and little, till it is dissolved.

      This emulsion is used for attenuating tough, viscid phlegm, and promoting expectoration. In obstinate coughs, two ounces of the syrup of poppies may be added to it. The dose is two table-spoonfuls three or four times a day.

      Oily Emulsion

      Take of soft water, six ounces; volatile aromatic spirit, two drachms; Florence oil, an ounce; shake them well together, and add, of simple syrup, half an ounce.

      In recent colds and coughs, this emulsion is generally of service; but if the cough proves obstinate, it will succeed better when made with the paregoric elixir of the Edinburgh Dispensatory, instead of the volatile aromatic spirit. A table-spoonful of it may be taken every two or three hours.


      EXTRACTS are prepared by boiling the subject in water, and evaporating the strained decoction to a due consistence. By this process some of the more active parts of plants are freed from the useless, indissoluble earthy matter, which makes the larger share of their bulk. Water, however, is not the only menstruum used in the preparation of extracts; sometimes it is joined with spirits, and at other times rectified spirit alone is employed for that purpose.

      Extracts are prepared from a variety of different drugs, as the bark, gentian, jalap, &c.; but as they require a troublesome and tedious operation, it will be more convenient for a private practitioner to purchase what he needs of them from a professed druggist, than to prepare them himself. Such of them as are generally used are inserted in our list of such drugs and medicines as are to be kept for private practice.


      FOMENTATIONS are generally intended either to ease pain, by taking off tension and spasm, or to brace and restore the tone and vigour of those parts to which they are applied. The first of these intentions may generally be answered by warm water, and the second by cold. Certain substances, however, are usually added to water, with a view to heighten its effects, as anodynes, aromatics, astringents, &c. We shall therefore subjoin a few of the most useful medicated fomentations, that people may have it in their power to make use of them if they chuse.

      Anodyne Fomentation

      Take of white poppy-heads, two ounces; elder flowers, half an ounce; water, three pints. Boil till one pint is evaporated, and strain out the liquor.

      This fomentation, as its title expresses, is used for relieving acute pain.

      Aromatic Fomentation

      Take of Jamaica pepper, half an ounce; red wine, a pint. Boil them for a little, and then strain the liquor.

      This is intended, not only as a topical application for external complaints, but also for relieving the internal parts. Pains of the bowels, which accompany dysenteries and diarrhoeas, flatulent colics, uneasiness of the stomach, and reachings to vomit, are frequently abated by fomenting the abdomen and region of the stomach with the warm liquor.

      Common Fomentation

      Take tops of Wormwood and camomile flowers, dried, of each two ounces; water, two quarts. After a slight boiling, pour off the liquor.

      Brandy or spirit of wine may be added to this fomentation, in such quantity as the particular circumstances of the case shall require; but these are not always necessary.

      EmoIlient Fomentation

      This is the same as the common decoction.

      Strengthening Fomentation

      Take of oak bark, one ounce; granate peel, half an ounce; alum, two drachms; smith’s forge water, three pints. Boil the water with the bark and peel to the consumption of one third; then strain the remaining decoction, and dissolve it in alum.

      This astringent liquor is employed as an external fomentation to weak parts; it may also be used internally


      HOWEVER trifling this class of medicines may appear, they are by no means without their use. They seldom indeed cure diseases, but they often alleviate very disagreeable symptoms; as parchedness of the mouth, foulness of the tongue and fauces, &c. they are peculiarly useful in fevers and and sore throats. In the latter, a gargle will sometimes remove the disorder; and in the former, few things are more refreshing or agreeable to the patient, than to have his mouth frequently washed with some soft detergent gargle.

      One advantage of these medicines is, that they are easily prepared. A little barley-water and honey may be had any where; and if to these be added as much vinegar as will give them an agreeable sharpness, they will make a vey useful gargle for softening and cleansing the mouth.

      Gargles have the best effect when injected with a syringe.

      Attenuating Gargle

      Take of water, six ounces; honey, one ounce; nitre, a drachm and a half. Mix them.

      This cooling gargle may be used either in the inflammatory quinsey, or in fevers, for cleansing the tongue and fauces.

      Common Gargle

      Take of rose-water, six ounces; syrup of clove July-flowers, half an ounce; spirit of vitriol, a sufficient quantity to give it an agreeable sharpness. Mix them.

      This gargle, besides cleansing the tongue and fauces, acts as a gentle repellent, and will sometimes remove a slight quinsey.

      Detergent Gargle

      Take of the emollient gargle, a pint: tincture of myrrh, an ounce; honey, two ounces. Mix them.

      When exulcerations require to be cleansed, or the excretion of tough viscid saliva will be promoted, this gargle will be of service.

      Emollient Gargle

      Take an ounce of marshmallow roots, and two or three figs; boil them in a quart of water till near one half of it be consumed; then strain out the liquor.

      If an ounce of honey, and half an ounce of spirit of sal ammoniac, be added to the above, it will then be an exceeding good attenuating gargle.

      This gargle is beneficial in fevers, where the tongue and fauces are rough and parched, to soften these parts, and promote the discharge of saliva.

      The learned and accurate Sir John Pringle observes, that in the inflammatory quinsey, or strangulation of the fauces, little benefit arises from the common gargles; that such as are of an acid nature do more harm than good, by contracting the emunctories of the saliva and mucus, and thickening those humours; that a decoction of figs in milk and water has a contrary effect, especially if some sal-ammoniac be added; by which the saliva is made thinner, and the glands brought to secrete more freely; a clrcumstance always conducive to the cure.


      VEGETABLES yield nearly the same properties to water by infusion as by decoction; and though they may require a longer time to give out their virtues in this way, yet it has several advantages over the other; since boiling is found to dissipate the finer parts of many bitter and aromatic substances, without more fully extracting their medicinal principles.

      The author of the New Dispensatory observes, that even from those vegetables which are weak in virtue, rich infusions may be obtained, by returning the liquor upon fresh quantities of the subject, the water loading itself more and more with the active parts; and that these loaded infusions are applicable to valuable purposes in medicine, as they contain in a small compass the finer, more subtle, and active principles of vegetables, in a form readily miscible with the fluids of the human body.

      Bitter Infusion

      Take tops of the lesser centaury and camomile flowers, of each half an ounce; yellow rind of lemon and orange peel, carefully freed from the inner white part, of each two drachms. Cut them in small pieces, and infuse them in a quart of boiling water.

      For indigestion, weakness of the stomach, or want of appetite, a tea-cupful of this infusion may be taken twice or thrice a day.

      Infusion of the Bark

      To an ounce of the bark, in powder, add four or five table-spoonfuls of brandy, and a pint of boiling water. Let them infuse for two or three days.

      This is one of the best preparations of the bark for weak stomachs. In disorders where the corroborating virtues of that medicine are required, a tea-cupful of it may be taken two or three times a day.

      lnfusion of Carduus

      Infuse an ounce of the dried leaves of carduus benedictus in a pint of common water, for six hours, without heat; then filter the liquor through paper.

      This light infusion may be given, with great benefit, in weakness of the stomach, where the common bitters do not agree. It may be flavoured at pleasure with cinnamon, or other aromatic materials.

      Infusion of Linseed

      Take of linseed, two spoonfuls; liquorice root, sliced, half an ounce; boiling water, three pints. Let them stand to infuse by the fire for some hours, and then strain off the liquor.

      If an ounce of the leaves of colt’s-foot be added to these ingredients, it will then be the pectoral infusion. Both these are emollient mucilaginous liqours, and may be taken with advantage as ordinary drink in difficulty of making water; and in coughs and other complaints of the breast.

      Infusion of Roses

      Take of red roses, dried, half an ounce; boiling water, a quart; vitriolic acid, commonly called oil of vitriol, half a drachm; loaf sugar, an ounce.

      Infuse the roses in the water for four hours, in an unglazed earthen vessel; afterwards pour in the acid, and having strained the liquor add to it the sugar.

      in an excessive flow of the menses, vomiting of blood, and other haemorrhages, a tea-cupful of this gently astringent infusion may be taken every three or four hours. It likewise makes an exceeding good gargle.

      As the quantity of roses used here can have little or no effect, an equally valuable medicine may be prepared by mixing the acid and water without infusion.

      Infusion of Tamarinds and Senna

      Take of tamarinds, one ounce; senna, and crystals of tartar, each two drachms. Let these ingredients be infused four or five hours in a pint of boiling water; afterwards let the liquor be strained, and an ounce or two of the aromatic tincture added to it. Persons who are easily purged may leave out either the tamarinds or the crystals of tartar.

      This is an agreeable cooling purge. A tea-cupful may be given every half hour till it operates.

      This supplies the place of the decoction of tamarinds and senna.

      Spanish Infusion

      Take of spanish juice, cut into small pieces, an ounce; salt of tartar, three drachms. Infuse in a quart of boiling water for a night. To the strained liquor add an ounce and a half of the syrup of poppies.

      In recent colds, coughs, and obstructions of the breast, a tea-cupful of this infusion may be taken with advantage three or four times a day.

      Infusion for The Palsy

      Take of horse-radish root shaved, mustard seed bruised, each four ounces; outer rind of orange-peel, one ounce. Infuse them in two quarts of boiling water, in a close vessel, for twenty-four hours.

      In paralytic complaints, a tea-cupful of this warm stimulating medicine may be taken three or four times a day. It excites the action of the solids, proves diuretic, and, if the patient be kept warm, promotes perspiration.

      If two or three ounces of the dried leaves of marsh-trefoil be used instead of the mustard, it will make the antiscorbutic infusion.


      THE basis of juleps is generally common water or some simple distilled water, with one-third or one-fourth its quantity of distilled spirituous water, and as much sugar or syrup as is sufficient to render the mixture agreeable. This is sharpened with vegetable or mineral acids, or impregnated with other medicines suitable to the intention.

      Camphorated Julep

      Take of camphor, one drachm; gum arabic, half an ounce; double-refined sugar, an ounce; vinegar, a pint. Grind the camphor with a few drops of rectified spirit of wine, till it grows soft; then add the gum, previously reduced to a mucilage with equal its quantity of water, and rub them together till they are perfectly united. To this mixture add, by little and little, the vinegar with the sugar dissolved in it, still continuing the trituration.

      In hysterical and other complaints where camphor is proper, this julep may be taken in the dose of a spoonful or two as often as the stomach will bear it.

      Cordial Julep

      Take of simple cinnamon-water, four ounces; Jamaica pepper-water, two ounces; volatile aromatic spirit, and compound spirit of lavender, of each two drachms; syrup of orange-peel, an ounce. Mix them.

      This is given in the dose of two spoonfuls three or four times a day, in disorders accompanied with great weakness and depression of spirits.

      Expectorating Julep

      Take of the emulsion of gum ammoniac, six ounces; syrup of squills, two ounces. Mix them.

      In coughs, asthmas, and obstructions of the breast, two table-spoonfuls of this julep may be taken every three or four hours.

      Musk Julep

      Rub half a drachm of musk well together with half an ounce of sugar, and add to it, gradually, of simple cinnamon and pepper-mint water, each two ounces; of the volatile aromatic spirit, two drachms.

      In the low state of nervous fevers, hiccuping, convulsions, and other spasmodic affections; two table-spoonfuls of this julep may be taken every two or three hours.

      Saline Julep

      Dissolve two drachms of salt of tartar in three ounces of fresh juice, strained; when the effervescence is over, add, of mint-water, and common water, each two ounces; of simple syrup, one ounce.

      This removes sickness at the stomach, relieves vomiting, promotes perspiration, and may be of some service in fevers, efpecially of the inflammatory kind.

      Vomiting Julep

      Dissolve four grains of emetic tartar in eight ounces of water, and add to it half an ounce of the syrup of clove July-flowers.

      In the beginning of fevers, where there is no topical inflammation, this Julep may be given in the dose of one table-spoonful every quarter of an hour till it operates. Antimonial vomits serve not only to evacuate the contents of the stomach, but likewise to promote the different excretions. Hence they are found in fevers to have nearly the same effects as Dr. Jame’s Powder.


      A MIXTURE differs from a julep in this respect, that it receives into its composition not only salts, extracts, and other substances dissoluble in water, but also earths, powders, and such substances as cannot be dissolved. A mixture is seldom either an elegant or agreeable medicine. It is nevertheless necessary. Many persons can take a mixture, who are not able to swallow a bolus or an electuary: besides, there are medicines which act better in this than in an any other form.

      Astringent Mixture

      Take simple cinnamon-water and common water, of each three ounces; spirituous cinnamon- water, an ounce and a half; Japonic confection, half an ounce. Mix them.

      In dysenteries which are not of long standing, after the necessary evacuations, a spoonful or two of this mixture may be taken every four hours, interposing every second or third day a dose of rhubarb.

      Diuretic Mixture

      Take of mint-water, five ounces; vinegar of squills, six drachms; sweet spirit of nitre, half an ounce; syrup of ginger, an ounce and a half. Mix them.

      In obstructions of the urinary passages, two spoonfuls of this mixture maybe taken twice or thrice a day.

      Laxative absorbent Mixture

      Rub one drachm of magnesia alba in a mortar with ten or twelve grains of the best Turkey rhubarb, and add to them three ounces of common water, simple cinnamon water, and syrup of sugar, of each one ounce.

      As most diseases of infants are accompanied with acidities, this mixture may either be given with a view to correct these, or to open the body. A table-spoonful may be taken for a dose, and repeated three times a day. To a very young child half a spoon-ful will be sufficient.

      When the mixture is intended to purge, the dose may either be increased, or the quantity of rhubarb doubled.

      This is one of the most generally useful medicines for children with which I am acquainted.

      Saline Mixture

      Dissolve a drachm of the salt of tartar in four ounces of boiling water; and when cold, drop into it spirit of vitriol till the effervescence ceases; then add, of peppermint-water, two ounces; simple syrup, one ounce.

      Where fresh lemons cannot be had, this mixture may occasionally supply the place of the saline julep.

      Squill Mixture

      Take of simple cinnamon-water, five ounces; vinegar of squills, one ounce; syrup of marshmallows, an ounce and a half. Mix them.

      This mixture, by promoting expectoration, and the secretion of urine, proves servicable in asthmatic and dropsical habits. A tea-spoonful of it may be taken frequently.


      NOTWITHSTANDING the extravagant encomiums which have been bestowed on different preparations of this kind, with regard to their efficacy in the cure of wounds, sores, &c. it is beyond a doubt, that the most proper application to a green wound is dry lint. But though ointments do not heal wounds and sores, yet they serve to defend them from the external air, and to retain such substances as may be necessary for drying, deterging, destroying proud flesh, and such like. For these purposes, however, it will be sufficient to insert only a few of the most simple forms, as ingredients of a more active nature can occasionally be added to them.

      Yellow Basilicum Ointment

      Take of yellow wax, white resin, and frankincense, each a quarter of a pound; melt them together over a gentle fire; then add, of hogs’ lard prepared, one pound. Strain the ointment while warm.

      This ointment is employed for cleansing and healing wounds and ulcers.

      Ointment of Calamine

      Take of olive oil, a pint and a half; white wax, and calamine stone, levigated, of each half a pound. Let the calamine stone, reduced into a fine powder, be rubbed with some part of the oil, and afterwards added to the rest of the oil and wax, previously melted together, continually stirring them till quite cold.

      This ointment, which is commonly known by the name of Turner’s Cerate, is an exceeding good application in burns and excoriations, from whatever cause.

      Emollient Ointment

      Take of palm oil, two pounds; olive oil, a pint and a half; yellow wax, half a pound; Venice turpentine, a quarter of a pound. Melt the wax in the oils over a gentle fire; then mix in the turpentine, and strain the ointment.

      This supplies the place of Althoea Ointment. It may be used for anointing inflamed parts, &c.

      Eye Ointments

      Take of hogs’ lard prepared, four ounces; white wax, two drachms; tutty prepared, one ounce; melt the wax with the lard over a gentle fire, and then sprinkle in the tutty, continually stirring them till the ointment is cold.

      This ointment will be more efficacious, and of a better consistence, if two or three drachms of camphor be rubbed up with a little oil, and immediately mixed with it.


      Take of camphor, and calamine stone levigated, each six drachms; verdegrise, well prepared, two drachms; hogs’ lard and mutton suet prepared, of each two ounces. Rub the camphor well with the powder; afterwards mix in the lard and suet continuing the triture till they be perfectly united.

      This ointment has been long in esteem for diseases of the eyes. It ought, however, to be used with caution, when the eyes are much inflamed, or very tender.

      Issue Ointment

      Mix half an ounce of Spanish flies, finely powered, in six ounces of yellow basilicum ointment.

      This ointment is chiefly intended for dressing blisters, in order to keep them open during pleasure.

      Ointment of Lead

      Take of olive oil, half a pint; white wax, two ounces; sugar of lead, three drachms. Let the sugar of lead, reduced into a fine powder, be rubbed up with some part of the oil, and afterwards added to the other ingredients, previously melted together, continually stirring them, till quite cold.

      This cooling and gently astringent ointment may be used in all cases where the intention is to dry and skin over the part, as in scalding, &c.

      Mercurial Ointment

      Take of quicksilver, two ounces; hogs’ lard, three ounces; mutton suet, one ounce. Rub the quicksilver with an ounce of the hogs’s lard in a warm mortar, till the globules be perfectly extinguished; then rub it up with the rest of the lard and suet, previously melted together.

      The principal intention of this ointment is to convey mercury into the body by being rubbed upon the skin.

      Ointment of Sulphur

      Take of hogs’ lard prepared, four ounces; flowers of sulphur, an ounce and a half; crude sal ammoniac, two drachms; essence of lemon, ten or twelve drops. Make them into an ointment.

      This ointment, rubbed upon the parts affected, will generally cure the itch. It is both the safest and best application for that purpose, and, when made in this way, has no disagreeable smell.

      White Ointment

      Take of olive oil, one pint; white wax and sperma ceti, of each three ounces. Melt them with a gentle heat, and keep them constantly and briskly stirring together, till quite cold.

      If two drachms of camphor, previously rubbed with a small quantity of oil, be added to the the above, it will make the White camphorated Ointment.

      Liniment for Burns

      Take equal parts of Florence oil, or of fresh drawn linseed oil, and lime-water; shake them well together in a wide mouthed bottle, so as to form a liniment.

      This is found to be an exceeding proper application for recent scalds or burns. It may either be spread upon a cloth, or the parts affected may be anointed with it twice or thrice a day.

      White Liniment

      This is made in the same manner as the white ointment, two thirds of the wax being left out.

      This liniment may be applied in cases of excoriation, where, on account of the largeness of the surface, the ointments with lead or calamine might be improper.

      Liniment for the Piles

      Take of emollient ointment, two ounces; liquid laudanum, half an ounce. Mix these ingredients with the yolk of an egg, and work them well together.

      Volatile Liniment

      Take of florence oil, an ounce; spirit of hartshorn, half an ounce. Shake them together.

      This liniment, made with equal parts of the spirit and oil, will be more efficacious, where the patient’s skin is able to bear it.

      Sir John Pringle observes, that in the inflammatory quinsey, a piece of flannel moistened with this liniment, and applied to the throat, to be renewed every four or five hours, is one of the most efficacious remedies; and that it seldom fails, after bleeding, either to lessen or carry off the complaint. The truth of this observation I have often experienced.

      Camphorated Oil

      Rub an ounce of camphor, with two ounces of Florence oil, in a mortar, till the camphor be entirely dissolved.

      This antispasmodic liniment may be used in obstinate rheumatisms, and in some other cases accompanied with extreme pain and tension of the parts.


      MEDICINES which operate in a small dose, and whose disagreeable taste, or smell, makes it necessary that they should be concealed from the palate, are commodiously exhibited in this form. No medicine, however, that is intended to operate quickly, ought to be made into pills, as they often lie for a considerable time on the stomach before they are dissolved, so as to produce any effect.

      As the ingredients which enter the composition of pills are generally so contrived, that one pill of an ordinary size may contain about five grains of the compound, in mentioning the dose we shall only specify the number of pills to be taken; as one, two, three, &c.

      Composing Pill

      Take of purified opium, ten grains; Castile soap, half a drachm. Beat them together, and form the whole into twenty pills.

      When a quieting draught will not sit upon the stomach, one, two, or three of these pills may be taken, as occasion requires.

      Foetid Pill

      Take of asafoetida, half an ounce; simple syrup, as much as is necessary to form it into pills.

      In hysteric complaints, four or five pills, of an ordinary size, may be taken twice or thrice a day. They may likewise be of service to persons afflicted with the asthma.

      When it is necessary to keep the body open, a proper quantity of rhubarb, aloes, or jalap, may occasionally be added to the above mass.

      Hemlock Pill

      Take any quantity of the extract of hemlock, and adding to it about a fifth part its weight of the powder of the dried leaves, form it into pills.

      The extract of hemlock may be taken from one grain to several drachms in the day. The best method, however, of using these pills, is to begin with one or two, and to increase the dose gradually, as far as the patient can bear them, without any remarkable degree of stupor or giddiness.

      Mercurial Pill

      Take of purified quicksilver and honey, each half an ounce. Rub them together in a mortar, till the globules of mercury are perfectly extinguished; then add, of Castile soap, two drachms, powdered liquorice, or crumbs of bread, a sufficient quantity to give the mass a proper consistence for pills.

      When stronger mercurial pills are wanted, the quantity of quicksilver may be doubled.

      The dose of these pills is different, according to the intention with which they are given. As an alterant, two or three may be taken daily. To raise a salivation four or five will be necessary.

      Equal parts of the above pill and powdered rhubarb made into a mass, with a sufficient quantity of simple syrup, will make a Mercurial purging Pill.

      Mercurial sublimate Pill

      Dissolve fifteen grains of the corrosive sublimate of mercury in two drachms of the saturated solution of crude sal ammoniac, and make it into a paste, in a glass mortar, with a sufficient quantity of the crumb of bread. The mass must be formed into one hundred and twenty pills.

      This pill, which is the most agreeable form of exhibiting the sublimate, has been found efficacious, not only in curing the venereal disease, but also in killing and expelling worms, after other powerful medicines had failed. See a paper on this subject in the Edinburgh Physical and Literary Essays, by the ingenious Dr. John Gardener.

      For the veneral disease, four of these pills may be taken twice a day, as an alterant three, and for worms two.

      Plummer’s Pill

      Take of calomel, or sweet mercury, and precipitated sulphur of antimony, each three drachms; extract of liquorice, two drachms. Rub the sulphur and mercury well together; afterwards add the extract, and, with a sufficient quantity of the mucilage of gum arabic, make them into pills.

      This pill has been found a powerful, yet safe, alterative in obstinate cutaneous disorders; and has completed a cure after salivation had failed. In venereal cases it has likewise produced excellent effects. Two or three pills of an ordinary size may be taken night and morning, the patient keeping moderately warm and drinking after each dose a draught of decoction of the woods, or of sarsaparilla.

      Purging Pills

      Take of succotorine aloes, and Castile soap, each two drachms; of simple syrup, a sufficient quantity to make them into pills.

      Four or five of these pills will generally prove a sufficient purge. For keeping the body gently open, one may be taken night and morning. They are reckoned both deobstruent and stomachic, and will be found to answer all the purposes of Dr. Anderson’s pills, the principal ingredient of which is aloes.

      Where aloetic purges are improper, the following pills may be used :

      Take extract of jalap, and vitriolated tartar, of each two drachms; syrup of ginger, as much as will make them of a proper consistence of pills.

      These pills may be taken in the same quantity as the above.

      Pills for the Jaundice

      Take of Castile soap, succotorine aloes, and rhubarb, of each one drachm. Make them into pills with a sufficient quantity of syrup or mucilage.

      These pills, as their title expresses, are chiefly intended for the jaundice, which, with the assistance of proper diet, they will often cure. Five or six of them may be taken twice a day, more or less, as is necessary to keep the body open. It will be proper, however, during their use, to interpose now and then a vomit of ipecacuanha or tartar emetic.

      Stomachic Pills

      Take extract of gentian, two drachms; powdered rhubarb and vitriolated tartar, of each one drachm; oil of mint, thirty drops; simple syrup, a sufficient quantity.

      Three or four of these pills may be taken twice a day, for invigorating the stomach, and keeping the body gently open.

      Squill Pills

      Take powder of dried squills, a drachm and a half; gum ammoniac, and cardamom seeds, in powder, of each three drachms; simple syrup, a sufficient quantity.

      In dropsical and asthmatic complaints, two or three of these pills may be taken twice a day, or oftener, if the stomach will bear them.

      Strengthening Pill

      Take soft extract of the bark, and salt of steel, each half an ounce. Make into pills.

      In disorders arising from excessive debility, or relaxation of the solids, as the chlorosis, or green sickness, two of these pills may be taken three times a day.


      PLASTERS ought to be of a different consistence, according to the purposes for which they are intended. Such as are to be applied to the breasts or stomach ought to be soft and yielding; while those designed for the limbs should be firm and adhesive.

      It has been supposed, that plasters might be impregnated with the virtues of different vegetables, by boiling the recent vegetable with the oil employed for the composition of the plaster; but this treatment does not communicate to the oils any valuable qualities.

      The calces of lead boiled with oils unite with them into a plaster of a proper consistence, which make the basis of several other plasters. In boiling these compositions, a quantity of hot water must be added from time to time to prevent the plaster from burning or growing black. This, however, should be done with care, lest it cause the matter to explode.

      Common Plaster

      Take of common olive oil, six pints; litharge reduced to a fine powder, two pounds and a half. Boil the litharge and oil together over a gentle fire, continually stirring them, and keeping always about half a gallon of water in the vessel: after they have boiled about three hours, a little of the plaster may be taken out and put into cold water, to try if it be of a proper consistence: when that is the case, the whole may be suffered to cool, and the water well pressed out of it with the hands.

      This plaster is generally applied in slight wounds and excoriations of the skin. It keeps the part soft and warm, and defends it from the air, which is all that is necessary in such cases. Its principal use, however, is to serve as a basis for other plasters.

      Adhesive Plaster

      Take of common plaster, half a pound; of Burgundy pitch, a quarter of a pound. Melt them together.

      This plaster is principally used for keeping on other dressings.

      Anodyne Plaster

      Melt an ounce of adhesive plaster, and, when it is cooling, mix with it a drachm of powdered opium, and the same quantity of camphor, previously rubbed up with a little oil.

      This plaster generally gives ease in acute pains, especially of the nervous kind.

      Blistering Plaster

      Take of Venice turpentine, six ounces; yellow wax, two ounces; Spanish flies in fine powder, three ounces; powdered mustard, one ounce. Melt the wax, and while it is warm, add to it the turpentine, taking care not to evaporate it by too much heat. After the turpentine and wax are sufficiently incorporated, sprinkle in the powders, continually stirring the mass till it be cold.

      Though this plaster is made in a variety of ways, one seldom meets with it of a proper consistence. When compounded with oils and other greasy substances, its effects are blunted, and it is apt to run; while pitch and resin render it too hard and very inconvenient.

      When the blistering plaster is not at hand, its place may be supplied by mixing with any soft ointment a sufficient quantity of powdered flies; or by forming them into a paste with flour and vinegar.

      Gum Plaster

      Take of the common plaster, four pounds; gum ammoniac and galbanum, strained, of each half a pound. Melt them together, and add, of Venice turpentine, six ounces.

      This plaster is used as a digestive, and likewise for discussing indolent tumours.

      Mercurial Plaster

      Take of common plaster, one pound; of gum ammoniac, strained, half a pound. Melt them together, and, when cooling, add eight ounces of quick-silver, previously extinguished by triture, with three ounces of hog’s lard.

      This plaster is recommended in pains of the limbs arising from a venereal cause. Indurations of the glands, and other violent tumours, are likewise found sometimes to yield to it.

      Stomach Plaster

      Take of gum plaster, half a pound; camphorated oil, an ounce and a half; black pepper, or capsicum, where it can be had, one ounce. Melt the plaster, and mix with it the oil; then sprinkle in the pepper, previously reduced to a fine powder.

      An ounce or two of this plaster, spread upon soft leather, and applied to the region of the stomach, will be of service in flatulencies arising from hysteric and hypochondriac affections. A little of the expressed oil of mace, or a few drops of the essential oil of mint, may be rubbed upon it before it is applied.

      This may supply the place of the Antihysteric Plaster.

      Warm Plaster

      Take of gum plaster, one ounce; blistering plaster, two drachms. Melt them together over a gentle fire.

      This plaster is useful in the sciatica and other fixed pains of the rheumatic kind: it ought, however, to be worn for some time, and to be renewed at least once a-week. If this is found to blister the part, which is sometimes the case, it must be made with a smaller proportion of the blistering plaster.

      Wax Plaster

      Take of yellow wax, one pound; white resin, half a pound; mutton suet, three quarters of a pound. Melt them together.

      This is generally used instead of the Melilot Plaster. It is a proper application after blisters, and in other cases where a gentle digestive is necessary.


      THIS is one of the most simple forms in which medicine is administered. Many medicinal substances, however, cannot be reduced into powder and others are too disagreeable to be taken in this form. The lighter powders may be mixed in any agreeable thin liquor, as tea or water-gruel. The more ponderous will require a more consistent vehicle, as syrup, jelly, or honey.

      Gums, and other substances which are difficult to powder, should be pounded along with the drier ones; but those which are too dry, especially aromatics, ought to be sprinkled during their pulverization with a few drops of any proper water.

      Aromatic powders are to be prepared only in small quantities at a time, and kept in glass vessels closely stopped. Indeed, no powders ought to be exposed to the air, or kept too long, otherwise their virtues will be in great measure destroyed.

      Astringent Powder

      Take of alum and Japan earth, each two drachms. Pound them together, and divide the whole into ten or twelve doses.

      In an immoderate flow of the menses, and other haemorrhages, one of these powders may be taken every hour, or every half-hour, if the discharge be violent.

      Powder of Bole

      Take of bole armenic, or French bole, two ounces; cinnamon, one ounce; tormentil root and gum arabic, of each six drachms; long pepper, one drachm. Let all these ingredients be reduced into a powder.

      This warm, glutinous, astringent powder is given in fluxes, and other disorders where medicines of that class are necessary, in the dose of a scruple, or half a drachm.

      If a drachm of opium be added, it will make the Powder of Bole with Opium, which is a medicine of considerable efficacy. It may be taken in the same quantity as the former, but not above twice or thrice a day.

      Carminative Powder

      Take of coriander seed, half an ounce; ginger, one drachm; nutmegs, half a drachm; fine sugar, a drachm and a half. Reduce them into powder for twelve doses.

      This powder is employed for expelling flatulences arising from indigestion, particularly those to which hysteric and hypochondriac persons are so liable. It may likewise be given in small quantities to children in their food, when troubled with gripes.

      Diuretic Powder

      Take of gum arabic, four ounces; purified nitre, one ounce. Pound them together, and divide the whole into twenty-four doses.

      During the first stage of the venereal disease, one of these cooling powders maybe taken three times a day, with considerable advantage.

      Aromatic opening Powder

      Take of the best Turkey rhubarb, cinnamon, and fine sugar, each two drachms. Let the ingredients be pounded, and afterwards mixed well together.

      Where flatulency is accompanied with costiveness, a tea-spoonful of this powder may be taken once or twice a day, according to circumstances.

      Saline Laxative Powder

      Take of soluble tartar, and cream of tartar, each one drachm; purified nitre, half a drachm. Make them into a powder.

      In fevers, and other inflammatory disorders, where it is necessary to keep the body gently open, one of these cooling laxative powders may be taken in a little gruel, and repeated occasionally.

      Steel Powder

      Take filings of steel, and loaf-sugar, of each two ounces; ginger, two drachms. Pound them together.

      In obstructions of the menses, and other cases where steel is proper, a tea-spoonful of this powder may be taken twice a day, and washed down with a little wine or water.

      Sudorific Powder

      Take purified nitre and vitriolated tartar, of each half an ounce; opium and ipecacuanha, of each one drachm. Mix the ingredients, and reduce them to a fine powder.

      This is generally known by the name of Dover’s Powder. It is a powerful sudorific. In obstinate rheumatisms, and other cases where it is necessary to excite a copious sweat, this powder may be administered in the dose of a scruple or half a drachm. Some patients will require two scruples. It ought to be accompanied with the plentiful use of some warm diluting liquor.


      Take of tin reduced into a fine powder, an ounce; AEthiop’s mineral, two drachms. Mix them well together, and divide the whole into six doses.

      One of these powders may be taken in a little syrup, honey, or treacle, twice a day. After they have been all used, the following anthelmintic purge may be proper.

      Purging Worm-Powder

      Take of powdered rhubarb, a scruple; scammony and calomel, of each five grains. Rub them together in a mortar for one dose.

      For children the above doses must be lessened according to their age.

      If the powder of tin be given alone, its dose may be considerably increased. The late Dr. Alston give it to the amount of two ounces in three days, and says, when thus administered, that it proved an egregious anthelmintic. He purged his patients both before they took the powder and afterwards.

      Powder for The Tape-worm

      Early in the morning the patient is to take in any liquid, two or three drachms, according to his age and constitution, of the root of the male fern reduced into a fine powder. About two hours afterwards, he is to take of calomel and resin of scammony, each ten grains; gum gamboge, six grains. These ingredients must be finely powdered and given in a little syrup, honey, treacle, or any thing that is most agreeable to the patient. He is then to walk gently about, now and then drinking a dish of weak green tea, till the worm is passed. If the powder of the fern produces nausea, or sickness, it may be removed by sucking the juice of an orange or lemon.

      This medicine, which had been long kept a secret abroad for the cure of the tape-worm, was some time ago purchased by the French King, and made public for the benefit of mankind. Not having had an opportunity of trying it, I can say nothing from experience concerning its efficacy. It seems, however, from its ingredients, to be an active medicine, and ought to be taken with care. The dose here prescribed is sufficient for the strongest patient; it must, therefore, be reduced according to the age and constitution.


      SYRUPS were some time ago looked upon as medicines of considerable value. They are at present, however, regarded chiefly as vehicles for medicines of greater efficacy, and are used for sweetening draughts, juleps, or mixtures; and for reducing the lighter powders into boluses, pills, and electuaries. As all these purposes may be answered by the simple syrup alone, there is little occasion for any other; especially as they are seldom found but in a state of fermentation; and as the dose of any medicine given in this form is very uncertain. Persons who serve the public must keep whatever their customers call for; but to the private practitioner nine-tenths of the syrups usually kept in the shops are unnecessary.

      Simple syrup

      Is made by dissolving in water, either with or without heat, about double its weight of fine sugar.

      If twenty-five drops of laudanum be added to an ounce of the simple syrup, it will supply the place of diacodium, or the syrup of poppies, and will be found a more safe and certain medicine.

      The lubricating virtues of the syrup of marshmallows may likewise be supplied, by adding to the common syrup a sufficient quantity of mucilage of gum arabic.

      Those who chuse to preserve the juice of lemons in form of syrup, may dissolve in it, by the heat of a warm bath, nearly double its weight of fine sugar. The juice ought to be previously strained, and suffered to stand till it settles.

      The syrup of ginger is sometimes of use as a warm vehicle for giving medicines to persons afflicted with flatulency. It may be made by infusing two ounces of bruised ginger in two pints of boiling water for twenty-four hours. After the liquor has been strained, and has stood to settle for some time, it may be poured off, and a little more than double its weight of fine powdered sugar dissolved in it.


      RECTIFIED spirit is the direct menstruum of the resins and essential oils of vegetables, and totally extracts these active principles from sundry substances, which yield them to water, either not at all, or only in part.

      It dissolves likewise those parts of animal substances in which their peculiar smells and tastes reside. Hence the tinctures prepared with rectified spirits form an useful and elegant class of medicines, posessing many of the most essential virtues of simples, without being clogged with their inert or useless parts.

      Water, however, being the proper menstruum of the gummy, saline, and sacharine parts of medicinal substances, it will be necessary, in the preparation of several tinctures, to make use of a weak spirit, or a composition of rectified spirit and water.

      Aromatic Tincture

      Infuse two ounces of Jamaica pepper in two pints of brandy, without heat, for a few days; then strain off the tincture.

      This simple tincture will sufficiently answer all the intentions of the more costly preparations of this kind. It is rather too hot to be taken by itself; but is very proper for mixing with such medicines as might otherwise prove too cold for the stomach.

      Compound Tincture of the Bark

      Take of Peruvian bark, two ounces; Seville orange-peel and cinnamon, of each half an ounce. Let the bark be powdered, and the other ingredients bruised; then infuse the whole in a pint and a half of brandy, for five or six days, in a close vessel; afterwards strain off the tincture.

      This tincture is not only beneficial in intermitting fevers, but also in the slow, nervous, and putrid kinds, especially towards their decline.

      The dose is from one drachm to three or four, every fifth or sixth hour. It may be given in any suitable liquor, and occasionally sharpened with a few drops of the spirit of Vitriol.

      Volatile foetid Tincture

      Infuse two ounces of asafoetida in one pint of volatile aromatic spirit, for eight days, in a close bottle, frequently shaking it; then strain the tincture.

      This medicine is beneficial in hysteric disorders, especially when attended with lowness of spirits, and faintings. A tea-spoonful of it may be taken in a glass of wine, or a cup of penny-royal tea.

      Volatile Tincture of Gum Guaiacum

      Take of gum guaiacum, four ounces; volatile aromatic spirit, a pint. Infuse without heat in a vessel, well stopped, for a few days; then strain off the tincture. A very good tincture of guaiacum, for domestic use, may be made by infusing three or four ounces of the gum in a bottle of rum or brandy.

      In rheumatic complaints, a tea-spoonful of this tincture may be taken in a cup of the infusion of water-trefoil, twice or thrice a day.

      Tincture of Black Hellebore

      Infuse two ounces of the roots of black hellebore, bruised, in a pint of proof spirit, for seven or eight days; then filter the tincture through paper. A scruple of cochineal may be infused along with the roots, to give the tincture a colour.

      In obstructions of the menses, a tea-spoonful of this tincture may be taken in a cup of camomile or penny-royal tea twice a day.

      Astringent Tincture

      Digest two ounces of gum kino, in a pint and a half of brandy, for eight days; afterwards strain it for use.

      This tincture, though not generally known, is a good astringent medicine. With this view, an ounce, or more, of it may be taken three or four times a day.

      Tincture of Myrrh and Aloes

      Take of gum myrrh, an ounce and a half; hepatic aloes, one ounce. Let them be reduced to a powder, and infused in two pints of rectified spirits, for six days, in a gentle heat; then strain the tincture.

      This is principally used by surgeons for cleansing foul ulcers, and restraining the progress of gangrenes. It is also, by some, recommended as a proper application to green wounds.

      Tincture of Opium; or Liquid Laudanum

      Take of crude opium, two ounces; spirituous aromatic water, and mountain wine, of each ten ounces. Dissolve the opium, sliced, in the wine, with a gentle heat, frequently stirring it; afterwards add the spirit, and strain off the tincture.

      As twenty-five drops of this tincture contain about a grain of opium, the common dose may be from twenty to thirty drops.

      Sacred Tincture, or Tincture of Hiera Picra

      Take of succotorine aloes in powder, one ounce; Virginian snake-root and ginger, of each two drachms. Infuse in a pint of mountain wine, and half a pint of brandy, for a week, frequently shaking the bottle, then strain off the tincture.

      This is a safe and useful purge for persons of a languid and phlegmatic habit; but is thought to have better effects, taken in small doses as a laxative.

      The dose, as a purge, is from one to two ounces.

      Compound Tincture of Senna

      Take of senna, one ounce; jalap, coriander seeds, and cream of tartar, of each half an ounce. Infuse them in a pint and a half of French brandy for a week; then strain the tincture, and add to it four ounces of fine sugar.

      This is an agreeable purge, and answers all the purposes of the Elixir salutis, and of Daffy’s Elixir.

      The dose is from one to two or three ounces.

      Tincture of Spanish Flies

      Take of Spanish flies, reduced to a fine powder, two ounces; spirit of wine, one pint. Infuse for two or three days; then strain off the tincture.

      This is intended as an acrid stimulant for external use. Parts affected with the palsy or chronic rheumatism may be frequently rubbed with it.

      Tincture of the Balsam of Tolu

      Take of the balsam of Tolu, an ounce and a half; rectified spirit of wine, a pint. Infuse in a gentle heat until the balsam is dissolved; then strain the tincture.

      This tincture possesses all the virtues of the balsam. In coughs, and other complaints of the breast, a tea-spoonful or two of it may be taken in a bit of loaf-sugar. But the best way of using it is in syrup. An ounce of the tincture, properly mixed with two pounds of simple syrup, will make what is commonly called the Balsamic Syrup.

      Tincture of Rhubarb

      Take of rhubarb, two ounces and a half; lesser cardamom seeds, half an ounce; brandy, two pints. Digest for a week, and strain the tincture.

      Those who chuse to have a vinous tincture of rhubarb may infuse the above ingredients in a bottle of Lisbon wine, adding to it about two ounces of proof spirits.

      If half an ounce of gentian toot, and a drachm of Virginian snake-root be added to the above ingredients, it will make the bitter tincture of rhubarb.

      All these tinctures are designed as stomachics and corroborants as well as purgatives. In weakness of the stomach, indigestion, laxity of the intestines, fluxes, colicky and such like complaints, they are frequently of great service. The dose is from half a spoonful to three or four spoonfuls or more, according to the circumstances of the patient, and the purposes it is intended to answer.

      Paregoric Elixir

      Take of flowers of benzoin, half an ounce; opium, two drachms. Infuse in one pound of the volatile aromatic spirit, for four or five days, frequently shaking the bottle; afterwards strain the elixir.

      This is an agreeable and safe way of administering opium. It eases pain, allays tickling coughs, relieves difficult breathing, and is useful in many disorders of children, particularly the hooping cough.

      The dose to an adult is from fifty to a hundred drops.

      Sacred Elixir

      Take of rhubarb cut small, ten drachms; succotorine aloes, in powder, six drachms; lesser cardamom seeds, half an ounce; French brandy, two pints. Infuse for two or three days, and then strain the elixir.

      This useful stomachic purge may be taken from one ounce to an ounce and a half.

      Stomachic Elixir

      Take of gentian root, two ounces; Curassao oranges, one ounce; Virginian snake-root, half an ounce. Let the ingredients be bruised, and infused for three or four days, in two pints of French brandy; afterwards strain out the elixir.

      This is an elegant stomachic bitter. In flatulencies, indigestion, want of appetite, and such like complaints, a small glass of it may be taken twice a day. It likewise relieves the gout in the stomach, when taken in a large dose.

      Acid Elixir of Vitriol

      Take of the aromatic tincture, one pint; oil of vitriol, three ounces. Mix them gradually, and after the faeces have subsided, filter the elixir through paper, in a glass funnel.

      This is one of the best medicines which I know for hysteric and hypochondriac patients, afflicted with flatulencies arising from relaxation or debility of the stomach and intestines. It will succeed where the most celebrated stomachic bitters have no effect. The dose is from ten to forty drops, in a glass of wine or water, or a cup of any bitter infusion, twice or thrice a day. It should be taken when the stomach is most empty.

      Camphorated Spirit of Wine

      Dissolve an ounce of camphor in a pint of rectified spirits.

      This solution is chiefly employed as an embrocation in bruises, palsies, the chronic rheumatism, and for preventing gangrenes.

      The above quantity of camphor, dissolved in half a pound of the volatile aromatic spirit, makes Ward’s Essence.

      Spirit of Mindererus

      Take of volatile sal ammoniac, any quantity. Pour on it gradually distilled vinegar, till the effervescence ceases.

      This medicine is useful in promoting a discharge both by the skin and urinary passages. It is also a good external application in strains and bruises.

      When intended to raise a sweat, half an ounce of it in a cup of warm gruel may be given to the patient in bed every hour till it has the desired effect.


      VINEGAR is an acid produced from vinous liquors by a second fermentation. It is a useful medicine both in inflammatory and putrid disorders. Its effects are, to cool the blood, quench thirst, counteract a tendency to putrefaction, and allay inordinate motions of the system. It likewise promotes the natural secretions, and in some cases excites a copious sweat, where the warm medicines, called alexipharmic, tend rather to prevent that salutary evacuation.

      Weakness, faintings, vomitings, and other hysteric affections, are often relieved by vinegar applied to the mouth and nose, or received into the stomach. It is of excellent use also in correcting many poisonous substances, when taken into the stomach; and in promoting their expulsion, by the different emunctories, when received into the blood.

      Vinegar is not only an useful medicine, but serves likewise to extract in tolerable perfection, the virtues of several other medicinal substances. Most of the odoriferous flowers impart to it their fragrance, together with a beautiful purplish or red colour. It also assists or coincides with the intention of squills, garlic, gum ammoniac, and several other valuable medicines.

      These effects, however, are not to be expected from every thing that is sold under the name of vinegar, but from such as is sound and well prepared.

      The best vinegars are those prepared from French wines.

      It is necessary for some purposes that the vinegar be distilled; but as this operation requires a particular chemical apparatus, we shall not insert it.

      Vinegar of Litharge

      Take of litharge, half a pound; strong vinegar, two pints. Infuse them together in a moderate heat for three days, frequently shaking the vessel; then filter the liquor for use.

      This medicine is little used, from a general notion of its being dangerous. There is reason, however, to believe that the preparations of lead with vinegar are possessed of some valuable properties, and that they may be used in many cases with safety and success.

      A preparation of a similar nature with the above has of late been extolled by Goulard, a French surgeon, as a safe and extensively useful medicine, which he calls the Extract of Saturn, and orders to be made in the following manner:

      Take of litharge, one pound; vinegar made of French wine, two pints. Put them together into a glazed earthen pipkin, and let them boil, or rather simmer, for an hour, or an hour and a quarter, taking care to stir them all the while with a wooden spatula. After the whole has stood to settle, pour off the liquor which is upon the top into bottles for use.

      With this extract Goulard makes his vegeto-mineral water, which he recommends in a great variety of external disorders, as inflammations, burns, bruises, sprains, ulcers, &c. See Collyrium of Lead.

      He likewise prepares with it a number of other forms of medicine, as poultices, plasters, ointments, powders, &c.

      Vinegar of Roses

      Take of red roses, half a pound; strong vinegar, half a gallon. Infuse in a close vessel for several weeks, in a gentle heat; and then strain off the liquor.

      This is principally used as an embrocation for head-achs, &c.

      Vinegar of Squills

      Take of dried squills, two ounces; distilled vinegar, two pints. Infuse for ten days or a fortnight in a gentle degree of heat, afterwards strain off the liquor, and add to it about a twelfth part its quantity of proof spirits.

      This medicine has good effects in disorders of the breast, occasioned by a load of viscid phlegm. It is also of use in hydropic cases for promoting a discharge of urine.

      The dose is from two drachms to two ounces, according to the intention for which it is given. When intended to act as a vomit, the dose ought to be large. In other cases, it must not only be exhibited in small doses, but also mixed with cinnamon-water, or some other agreeable aromatic liquor, to prevent the nausea it might otherwise occasion.



      P0UR two gallons of water gradually upon a pound of fresh burnt quicklime; and when the ebullition ceases, stir them well together; then suffer the whole to stand at rest, that the lime may settle, and afterwards filter the liquor through paper, which is to be kept in vessels closely stopt.

      The lime water, from calcined oyster-shells, is prepared in the same manner.

      Lime-water is principally used for the gravel; in which case, from a pint to two or more of it may be drunk daily. Externally it is used for washing foul ulcers, and removing the itch, and other defecations of the skin.

      Compound Lime-Water

      Take shavings of guaiacum wood, half a pound; liquorice root, one ounce; sassafras bark, half an ounce; coriander seeds, three drachms; simple lime-water, six pints.

      Infuse without heat for two days, and then strain off the liquor.

      In the same manner may lime-water be impregnated with the virtues of other vegetable substances. Such impregnation not only renders the water more agreeable to the palate, but also a more efficacious medicine, especially in cutaneous disorders, and foulness of the blood and juices.

      It may be taken in the same quantity as the simple water.

      Sublimate Water

      Dissolve eight grains of the corrosive sublimate in a pint of cinnamon-water.

      If a stronger solution be wanted, a double or triple quantity of sublimate may be used.

      The principal intention of this is to cleanse foul ulcers and consume proud flesh.

      Styptic Water

      Take of blue vitriol and alum, each an ounce and a half; wet water, one pint. Boil them until the salts are dissolved, then filter the liquor and add to it a drachm of the oil of vitriol.

      This water is used for stopping a bleeding at the nose, and other haemorrhages; for which purpose cloths or duffils dipt in it must be applied to the part.

      Tar Water

      Pour a gallon of water on two pounds of Norway tar, and stir them strongly together with a wooden rod: after they have stood to settle for two days, pour off the water for use.

      Though tar-water falls greatly short of the character which has been given of it, yet it possesses some medicinal virtues. It sensibly raises the pulse, increases the secretions, and sometimes opens the body, or occasions vomiting.

      A pint of it may be drank daily, or more, if the stomach can bear it. It is generally ordered to be taken on an empty stomach, viz. four ounces morning and evening., and the same quantity about two hours after breakfast and dinner.


      A GREAT number of distilled waters were formerly kept in the shops, and are still retained in some Dispensatories. But we consider them chiefly in the light of grateful diluents, suitable vehicles for medicines of greater efficacy, or for rendering disgustful ones more agreeable to the palate and stomach. We shall therefore insert only a few of those which are best adapted to these intentions.

      The management of a still being now generally understood, it is needless to spend time in giving directions for that purpose.

      Cinnamon Water

      Steep one pound of cinnamon bark, bruised, in a gallon and a half of water, and one pint of brandy, for two days; and then distil off one gallon.

      This is an agreeable aromatic water, possessing in a high degree the fragrance and cordial virtues of the spice.

      Pennyroyal Water

      Take of pennyroyal leaves, dried, a pound and a half; water, from a gallon and a half to two gallons. Draw off by distillation one gallon.

      This water possesses, in a considerable degree, the smell, taste, and virtues of the plant. It is given in mixtures and juleps to hysteric patients.

      An infusion of the herb in boiling water answers nearly the same purposes.

      Peppermint Water

      This is made in the same manner as the preceding.

      Spearmint Water

      This may also be prepared in the same way as the Pennyroyal water.

      Both these are useful stomachic waters, and will sometimes relieve vomiting, especially when it proceeds from indigestion, or cold viscid phlegm. They are likewise useful in some colicky complaints, the gout in the stomach, &c. particularly the peppermint water.

      An infusion of the fresh plant is frequently found to have the same effects as the distilled water.

      Rose Water

      Take of roses fresh gathered, six pounds; water, two gallons. Distil off one gallon.

      This water is principally valued on account of its fine flavour.

      Jamaica Pepper Water

      Take of Jamaica pepper, half a pound; water, a gallon and a half. Distil off one gallon.

      This is a very elegant distilled water, and may in most cases supply the place of the more costly spice waters.


      Spirituous Cinnamon Water

      TAKE of cinnamon, one pound; proof spirit, and common water, of each one gallon. Steep the cinnamon in the liquor for two days; then distil off one gallon.

      Spirituous Jamaica Pepper Water

      Take of Jamaica pepper, half a pound; proof spirit, three gallons; water, two gallons. Distil off three gallons.

      This is a sufficiently agreeable cordial, and may supply the place of the Aromatic Water.


      Alum Whey

      BOIL two drachms of powdered alum in a pint of milk till it is curdled; then strain out the whey.

      This whey is beneficial in an immoderate flow of the menses, and in a diabetes, or excessive discharge of urine.

      The dose is two, three, or four ounces, according as the stomach will bear it, three times a day. If it should occasion vomiting, it may be diluted.

      Mustard Whey

      Take milk and water, of each a pint; bruised mustard seed, an ounce and a half. Boil them together till the curd is perfectly separated; afterwards strain the whey through a cloth.

      This is the most elegant, and by no means the least efficacious method of exhibiting mustard. It warms and invigorates the habit, and promotes the different secretions. Hence, in the low state of nervous fevers, it will often supply the place of wine. It is also of use in the chronic rheumatism, palsy, dropsy, &c. The addition of a little sugar will render it more agreeable.

      The dose is an ordinary tea-cupful four or five times a day.

      Scorbutic Whey

      This whey is made by boiling half a pint of the scorbutic juices in a quart of cow’s milk. More benefit, however, is to be expected from eating the plants, than from their expressed juices.

      The scorbutic plants are, bitter oranges, brooklime, garden scurvy-grass, and water-cresses.

      A number of other wheys may be prepared nearly in the same manner, as orange whey, cream of tartar whey, &c. These are cooling pleasant drinks in fevers, and may be rendered cordial, when necessary, by the addition of wine.


      THE effects of wine are, to raise the pulse, promote perspiration, warm the habit, and exhilarate the spirits. The red wines, besides these effects, have an astringent quality, by which they strengthen the tone of the stomach and intestines, and by this means prove serviceable in restraining immoderate secretions.

      The thin sharp wines have a different tendency. They pass off freely by the different emunctories, and gently open the body. The effects of the full-bodied wines are, however, much more durable than those of the thinner.

      All sweet wines contain a glutinous substance, and do not pass off freely. Hence they will heat the body more than an equal quantity of any other wine; though it should contain fully as much spirit.

      From the obvious qualities of wine, it must appear to be an excellent cordial medicine. Indeed, to say the truth, it is worth all the rest put together.

      But to answer this character it must be sound and good. No benefit is to be expected from the common trash that is often sold by the name of wine, without possessing one drop of the juice of the grape. Perhaps no medicine is more rarely obtained genuine than wine.

      Wine is not only used as a medicine, but is also employed as a menstruum for extracting the virtues of other medicinal substances for which it is not ill adapted, being a compound of water, inflammable spirit, and acid; by which means it is enabled to act upon vegetable and animal substances, and also to dissoIve some bodies of the metallic kind, so as to impregnate itself with their virtues, as steel, antimony, &c.,

      Anthelmintic Wine

      Take of rhubarb, half an ounce; worm-seed, an ounce. Bruise them, and infuse without heat in two pints of red port wine for a few days, then strain off the wine.

      As the stomacks of persons afflicted with worms are always debilitated, red wine alone will often prove serviceable: it must, however, have still better effects when joined with bitter and purgative ingredients, as in the above form.

      A glass of this wine may be taken twice of thrice a a day.

      Antimonial Wine

      Take glass of antimony, reduced to fine powder, half an ounce; Lisbon Wine, eight ounces. Digest, without heat, for three or four days, now and then shaking the bottle; afterwards filter the wine through paper.

      The dose of this wine varies according to the intention. As an alterative and diaphoretic, it may be taken from ten to fifty or sixty drops. In a larger dose it generally proves cathartic, or excites vomiting.

      Bitter wine

      Take of gentian root, yellow rind of lemon-peel, fresh, each one ounce; long pepper, two drachms; mountain wine, two pints. Infuse without heat for a week, and strain out the wine for use.

      In complaints arising from weakness of the stomach, or indigestion, a glass of this wine may be taken an hour before dinner and supper.

      Ipecacuanha Wine

      Take of ipecacuanha, in powder, one ounce; mountain wine, a pint. Infuse for three or four days; then filter the tincture.

      This is a safe vomit, and answers extremely well for such persons as cannot swallow the powder, or whose stomachs are too irritable to bear it.

      The dose is from one ounce to an ounce and a half.

      Chalybeate or Steel Wine

      Take filings of iron, two ounces; cinnamon and mace, of each two drachms; Rhenish wine, two pints. Infuse for three or four weeks, frequently shaking the bottle; then pass the wine through a filter.

      In obstructions of the menses, this preparation of iron may be taken, in the dose of half a wine-glass twice or thrice a day.

      The medicine would probably be as good if made with Lisbon wine, sharpened with half an ounce of the cream of tartar, or a small quantity of the vitriolic acid.

      Stomach Wine

      Take of Peruvian bark, grossly powdered, an ounce; cardamon seeds, and orange peel, bruised, of each two drachms. Infuse in a bottle of white port or Lisbon wine for five or six days, then strain off the wine.

      This wine is not only of service in laxity and debility of the stomach and intestines, but may also be taken as a preventive, by persons liable to the intermittent fever, or who reside in places where this disease prevails. It will be of use likewise to those who recover slowly after fevers of any kind, as it assists digestion, and helps to restore the tone and vigour of the system.

      A glass of it may be taken two or three times a day.


      ALTHOUGH terms of art have been sedulously avoided in the composition of this treatise, it is impossible entirely to banish technical phrases when writing on medicine, a science that has been less generally attended to by mankind, and continues therefore, to be more infected with the jargon of the schools, than perhaps any other. Several persons having expressed their opinion, that a Glossary would make this work more generally intelligible, the following concise explanation of the few terms of art that occur has been added in compliance with their sentiments, and to fulfill the original intention of this treatise, by rendering it intelligible and useful to all ranks and classes of mankind.

      Abdomen. The belly.

      Absorbents. Vessels that convey the nourishment from the intestines, and the secreted fluids from the various cavities into the mass of blood.

      Acrimony. Corrosive sharpness.

      Acute. A disease, the symptoms of which are violent, and tend to a speedy termination, is called acute.

      Adult. Of mature age.

      Adust. Dry warm.

      Antispasmodic. Whatever tends to prevent or remove spasm.

      Apthae. Small whitish ulcers appearing in the mouth.

      Astriction. A tightening, or lessening.

      Atrabilarian. An epithet commonly applied to people of a certain temperament, marked by a dark complexion, black hair, spare habit. &c. which the antients supposed to arise from the atra bilis, or the black bile.

      Bile, or Gall – A fluid which is secreted by the liver into the gallbladder, and from thence passes into the intestines, in order to promote digestion.

      Cacochymie. An unhealthy state of the body.

      Caries. A rottenness of a bone.

      ChyIe. A milky fluid separated from the aliment in the intestines, and conveyed by the absorbents into the blood to supply the waste of the animal body.

      Chronic. A disease whose progress is slow, in opposition to acute.

      Circulation. The motion of the blood, which is driven by the heart through the arteries, and returns by the veins.

      Comatose. Sleepy.

      Conglobate Gland. A simple gland.

      Conglomerate. A compound gland.

      Contagion. Infectious matter.

      Cutis. The skin.

      Cutaneous. Of or belonging to the skin.

      Crisis. A certain period in the progress of a disease, from whence a decided alteration either for the better or the worse takes place.

      Critical. Decisive or important.

      Critical Days. The fourth, fifth, seventh, ninth, eleventh, thirteenth, fourteenth, seventeenth, and twenty-first, are by some authors denominated critical days, because febrile complaints have been observed to take a decisive change at these periods.

      Debility. Weakness.

      Delirium. A temporary disorder of the mental faculties.

      Diaphragm. A membrane separating the cavity of the chest from that of the belly.

      Diuretic. A medicine that promotes the secretion of urine.

      Drastic. Is applied to such purgative medicines as are violent or harsh in their operation.

      Empyema. A collection of purulent matter in the cavity of the breast.

      Endemic. A disease peculiar to a certain district of country.

      Epidemic. A disease generally infectious.

      Exacerbation. The increase of any disease.

      Foeces. Excrements.

      Foetid. Emitting an offensive smell.

      Foetus. The child before birth, or when born before the proper period, is thus termed.

      Flatulent. Producing wind

      Fungus. Proud flesh.

      Gangrene. Mortification.

      Venereal excrescences.

      Gymnastic. Exercise taken with a view to preserve or restore health. – The ancient physicians reckoned this an important branch of medicine.

      Hectic Fever. A slow, consuming fever, generally attending a bad habit of body, or some incurable and deep rooted disease.

      Hemorrhoids. The piles.

      Hemorrhage. Discharge of blood.

      Hypochondriacism. Low spirits.

      Hypchondriac viscera. The liver, spleen, &c. so termed from their situation in the hypochondria or upper and lateral parts of the belly.

      Ichar. Thin bad matter.

      Imposthume. A collection of purulent matter.

      Inflammation. A surcharge of blood, and an increased action of the vessels, in any particular part of the body

      Ligature. Bandage.

      Lixivium. Ley.

      Miliary Eruption. Eruption of small pustules resembling the seeds of millet.

      Morbific. Causing disease, or diseased.

      Mucus. The matter discharged from the nose, lungs, &c.

      Misentery. A double membrane which connects the intestines to the back bone.

      Nervous. Irritable.

      Nausea. An inclination to vomit.

      Nodes. Enlargements of the bones produced by the venereal disease.

      Pectoral. Medicines adapted to cure diseases of the breast.

      Pelvis. The bones situated at the lower part of the trunk; thus named from their resembling in some measure a bason.

      Peritonaeum. A membrane lining the cavity of the belly and covering the intestines.

      Pericardium. Membrane containing the heart.

      Perspiration. The matter discharged from the pores of the skin in form of vapour or sweat.

      Phlogiston. Is here used to signify somewhat rendering the air unfit for the purposes of respiration.

      Phlegmatic. Watery, relaxed.

      Plethoric. Replete with blood.

      Polypus. A diseased excrescence, or a substance formed of coagulable lymph, frequently found in the large blood vessels.

      Pus. Matter contained in a boil.

      Rigimen. Regulation of diet.

      Rectum. The straight gut, in which the foeces are contained.

      Respiration. The act of breathing.

      Saliva. The fluid secreted by the glands of the mouth.

      Sanies. A thin bad matter, discharged from an ill conditioned sore.

      Schirrhous. A state of diseased hardness.

      Slough. A part separated and thrown off by suppuration.

      Spasm. A diseased contraction.

      Spine. The back bone.

      Styptic. A medicine for stopping the discharge of blood.

      Syncope. A fainting fit attended with a complete abolition of sensation and thought.

      Tabes. A species of consumption.

      Temperament. A peculiar habit of body, of which there are generally reckoned four, viz, the sanguine, the bilious, the melancholic, and the phlegmatic.

      Virtigo. Giddiness.

      Ulcer. An ill conditioned sore.

      Ureters. Two long and small canals which convey the urine from the kidneys to the bladder.

      Urethra. The canal which conveys the urine from the bladder.

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